Friday, May 22, 2020

Book Report - Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde - 4784 Words

A. Title of the Book: â€Å" The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† B. Author: Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 -1894) * As a novelist, he is often noted for the powers of invention and depth of psychological insights found in his work; a skill defined by G. K. Chesterton as being able ‘to pick up the right word up on the point of his pen’. * Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer. * A literary celebrity during his lifetime, Stevenson now ranks among the 26 most translated authors in the world. * Stevenson was born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson at 8 Howard Place, Edinburgh, Scotland, on 13 November 1850 to Margaret Isabella Balfour and†¦show more content†¦* On 3 December 1894, Stevenson was talking to his wife and straining to open a bottle of wine when he suddenly exclaimed, Whats that! asking his wife Does my face look strange? and collapsed. * Stevenson was a celebrity in his own t ime, but with the rise of modern literature after World War I, he was seen for much of the 20th century as a writer of the second class, relegated to childrens literature and horror genres. * Half of Stevensons original manuscripts are lost, including those of â€Å"Treasure Island†, â€Å"The Black Arrow† and â€Å"The Master of Ballantrae.† Stevensons heirs sold Stevensons papers during World War I; many Stevenson documents were auctioned off in 1918. C. Type of Literature * â€Å"The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† belongs to the allegoric type of literature. Insightful, well-written, and extremely enjoyable, it is a story that chimes so with our collective consciousness that it has entered into a legend. It doesn’t just give one phase of what you read but it also another phase where in you can reflect and interfere with another idea. Usually in allegory, the events depicted symbolize an underlying moral or spiritual quality or represent a hidden meaning beneath the literal one expressed. Likewise, in the story,Show MoreRelatedBook Report - Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde4772 Words   |  20 PagesA. Title of the Book: â€Å" The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† B. Author: Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 -1894) * As a novelist, he is often noted for the powers of invention and depth of psychological insights found in his work; a skill defined by G. K. Chesterton as being able ‘to pick up the right word up on the point of his pen’. * Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson  was a Scottish  novelist, poet, essayist, and  travel writer. * A literary celebrity duringRead MoreThe Literature of the Victorian Period1090 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† by Stevenson Book Analysis â€Å"North and South† by Gaskell Book Report Example of Literature Review essay, Sample Paper Introduction The literature of the Victorian period is the synonymy of oppositions. Some of the oppositions introduced by this period are to be considered â€Å"vital† as they deal with the major human values. The list of the works known to be the best representations of the Victorian world outlook is very long; nevertheless some works are to be highlightedRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1577 Words   |  7 PagesStevenson’s legendary novella, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, is relatively well known. A scientist, Dr. Henry Jekyll, tries to separate his inner good from evil and ends up with an alter ego, Edward Hyde. While Hyde, he commits numerous atrocities, including trampling a child and beating Sir Danvers Carew to death with a walking stick. The story is mostly written from the point of view of Mr. Gabriel Utterson, a lawyer who is friends with Jekyll and eventually pieces together the mystery ofRead MoreThere Has Always Been A Fascination Wit h The Self, Often1285 Words   |  6 PagesThere has always been a fascination with the self, often expressed in literature; Both Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) and Daniel Keyes’ Flowers for Algernon (1966) published nearly one-hundred years later, explore the theme of the importance of self-knowledge. Both The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Flowers for Algernon explore cases of self-alienation catalyzed by a quest for self-knowledge. The main character’s self-alienation stems fromRead MoreFrankenstien vs Dr.Jekly and Mr. Hyde1495 Words   |  6 PagesBoth Robert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein tell cautionary tales of scientists abusing their creative powers to exist in another sphere where they cannot be directly blamed for their actions. Though Frankensteins creation is a Creature distinct from his creator while Dr. Jekyll metamorphoses into Mr. Hyde, the double of each protagonist progressively grows more violent throughout his story. By doing so he symbolizes his creators repressed desires inRead More Robert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1456 Words   |  6 PagesRobert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Both Robert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein tell cautionary tales of scientists abusing their creative powers to exist in another sphere where they cannot be directly blamed for their actions. Though Frankensteins creation is a Creature distinct from his creator while Dr. Jekyll metamorphoses into Mr. Hyde, the double of each protagonist progressively grows more violent throughoutRead MoreDr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde2521 Words   |  11 PagesUncovering Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was published in 1886 by Robert Louis Stevenson. The story is based on a London lawyer named Gabriel John Utterson, who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr. Henry Jekyll, and the evil Edward Hyde. This novel was composed as a shilling shocker. A shilling shocker is a short, graphic book. This whole novel is based in Victorian England. Noting the servants, differences between the rich and poorRead MoreStevensons Use of Literary Techniques to Portray Evil in Jekyll and Hyde3969 Words   |  16 PagesThis essay will focus on how Robert Louis Stevenson presents the nature of evil through his novel ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’. Using ideas such as duality, the technique used to highlight the two different sides of a character or scene, allegories, an extended metaphor which has an underlying moral significance, and hypocrisy; in this book the Victorians being against all things evil but regula rly taking part in frown able deeds that would not be approved of in a ‘respectable’ societyRead MoreMovie Review : Jekyll Hyde The Musical 1661 Words   |  7 PagesFort Worth Academy of Fine Arts Summer 2014 High School Reading Drama Report Form: Alexandra Brinkley 12th Grade AP Literature Maddoux Play Title: Jekyll Hyde The Musical Author: The whole show is based on â€Å"Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† by Robert Louis Stevenson. The musical lyrics were written by Frank Wildhorn, Leslie Bricusse, and Steven Cuden. The musical book was written by Leslie Bricusse. Category/Genre: Drama/Horror Where did you watch this play? I watched this show at CasaRead MoreDissociative Identity Disorder ( Multiple Personality )1397 Words   |  6 Pagesto test the reliability and validity of this scale. The scale is referred to as The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and was developed to help measure dissociation in individuals. The Dissociative Experiences Scale is a twenty-eight item self-report questionnaire. How this scale works is that the individual is asked to mark on a line to indicate where they fall on the continuum for each specific question. After the experiment, the scale was able to show high rates in both reliability and validity

Friday, May 8, 2020

Climate Change And Its Effects On The Environment - 842 Words

Climate change impacts are not new issues nowadays. Many scholars had identified some phenomena that show the occurrence climate change. For instance the increases of Earth’s temperature, the significant records of sea level rise, which threaten mostly on Small Island developing states, extreme weather that cause the shifting season, and drought events. Basically, impacts of climate change cannot be avoided. However as intellectual creatures, humans are expected to be able to take actions in minimizing its impacts. In addition, people need to understand the context of climate change impacts on certain locations over time, and how the local systems work before implementing the climate change adaptation and mitigation actions because these actions could not be generalized to be applied on all conditions. Due to these actions depends on the local context, therefore, I belief that it is necessary to understand about the concept of climate change comprehensively as well as its adap tation and mitigation actions in order to enhance our capacity to deal with the climate change’s consequences. Climate change issues in Indonesia Reflects to Indonesia context, as located on the pacific ring of fire, it causes Indonesia facing the high risk of natural hazards. Also, the climate change impacts threat Indonesia as an archipelago nation. Human activities, however, exacerbate its impacts through urbanization, deforestation, and land clearance for example. Frequently flood and drought eventsShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment Essay1268 Words   |  6 PagesOCEAN ACIDIFICATION Smog, contaminated water, melting of snow packs. These are some of impacts that Climate Change has had on the Earth over the past years. All of these are product of the increase in carbon dioxide emissions by humans and their polluting activities. Since the Industrial Revolution, these events have escalated and, they have been becoming more noticeable and prolonged across the globe. Some of these events are more palpable and pronounced in certain parts of the hemisphere. For exampleRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment1445 Words   |  6 Pagescooler climates all are impacts of increasing temperatures that are happening right now. Within the next century, sea levels will rise 7 - 23 inches, Storms will become much stronger, floods/droughts will become more common, and many, many other negative environmental changes (Cook). These changes in the environment have been the topic of debate for decades, but has become more and more common over the past few years. On one side of the debate, there are the people who believe climate changeRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment1506 Words   |  7 Pagesthe amount of damage that has been done to the environment is due to this current generation and the problem I will be focusing on is climate change. Climate change is an issue that has been present for many years, but we are just now deciding to stand up and try to fix things. The problem at hand is whether or not it’s too late to undo the destruction that’s already been done. Is this damage too critical that it cannot be corrected? Climate change is an environmental issue that is reversible, theRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment1217 Words   |  5 Pagesrisks of climate change, but many others are unaware of the problem, unsure of the facts or what to do, do not trust experts or believe their conclusions, think the problem is elsewhere, are fixed in their ways, believe that others should act, or believe that their actions will make no difference or are unimportant compared to those of others. II. †¢ An individual level of analysis is relevant for understanding the impacts of climate change and the ways individuals adapt to climate change becauseRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment1055 Words   |  5 PagesClimate change has become a major issue in today’s society. Coming from the rise of Greenhouse Gas emissions and changing temperature caused human developments, world leaders and organisations are working on ways to combat the problem. This includes taking steps towards renewable energy and a cleaner future. Although, human activity is not the sole cause to the rising earth’s temperatures. Besides are use of greenhouse gases and fossil fuels, natural Influences including the current El Nià ±o periodRead MoreClimate Change And Its Effect On The Environment Essay1348 Words   |  6 Pages Tying this back to climate change, it the levels of these salt marshes are affected by the rise in seawater. However, if the cordgrass and marsh hay experience more or less stress from higher or lower tides than they are used to, the soils within each area will be disturbed. The higher the sea level rises, the more tides increase in number as well as speed. If the tides speed up and become more frequent, it is possible that this could dislodge newly planted seeds and disturb the populations increasingRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment906 Words   |  4 PagesClimate is consistent behavior of temperature, precipitation, humidity, atmospheric pressure and other related environmental factors. Around the globe, temperature a re climbing, sea levels are rising, and season are changing, which means that climate change is transforming our Earth. Climate change indicates negative consequences on the impact to humanity and on the factors of the climate system. By climate change the most endangered is atmosphere, because it changes the composition of uncontrolledRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Enviro nment1188 Words   |  5 PagesDue to recent climate change the environment has been impacted in many ways. Climate Change is a change in global or regional climate patterns attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels (Oxford Dictionary). Scientists have studied the impacts it s having on the environment such as temperature rising, sea level rising, and increase in natural disasters. Climate change has only affected us in the 20 years due to the increase in factoriesRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment Essay954 Words   |  4 Pagesthat the reason for the heat range change is man made pollution. The alleged cause of this climatic change is the development of carbon dioxide, which blocks solar heat and keeps it from radiating out of the weather. Carbon footprint is a way to evaluate the effect that human actions have on the surroundings through the exhaust of green house gas, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbon are associated with environment changes and have an effect on the entire atmosphere. SpecificallyRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment Essay1916 Words   |  8 PagesBarack Obama and other World Leaders secured a global agreement to fight against climate change. President Obama strives to lessen global emissions by the end of the century and to alleviate the amount of fossil fuels that are being burned in our atmosphere. Society has been affecting our environment by burning fossil fuels and decreasing the amount of greenhouse gases. The changing climate has affected the environment in many ways. The Earth’s water systems have been thrown off balance, there are

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility Free Essays

Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 CHAPTER ONE: 1. 0 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION The Islamic concept of Al-Ijarah Thumma al-bay’ refers to lease or hire or rent ending with purchase. It is a type of lease which concludes with option to buy back which is concludes the legal title of the leased asset and will be passed to the lessee at the end of the period. We will write a custom essay sample on Acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is one of the contemporary innovative products which are design to meet the public demand at the same time, securing long term competitiveness in the financial market. AITAB comprised two contracts which are al-ijarah (leasing or renting) and followed by al-bay’ (sale) contract. Al-Ijarah: a contract whereby the lessor (Islamic bank) will rent the assets to the lessee (customer) over a certain period and at the end monthly rental amount as agreed by both parties. (Khir et al. 2008) Al-Bay’: upon completion of the rental period or upon the early settlement the lessor will then enter into the sale contract with the lessee to sell the asset at a pre-agreed selling price. (Khir et al. , 2008) Al-ijarah and al-bay’ are both categorised under the contract of exchange. The former relate to the exchange of usufruct for money, while latter involves the exchange of good for money. In AITAB the contract of al-ijarah runs separately from the contract of al-bay’. Si nce both contracts are executed in a sequence. A new contract AITAB can be used to describe the process of converting an Ijarah into a sale contract. (Khir et al. , 2008) AITAB is one of the contemporary innovative approaches in the Islamic hire purchase instrument which is an alternative product to conventional hire purchase. The significant difference between the two is that Islamic hire purchase is a unique contract involving a combination of two different contracts, thus involving a number of legal and shariah issues. It 1 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 calls for special rules on leasing and sale at different stages of the transactions in the light of shariah. It refers to owning the benefit of certain assets for a specific period of time, by paying an agreed sum of rental, with an agreement that the owner will transfer the rented asset to the hirer at the end of the agreed period or during the period, provided all rental payments or instalments have been made in entirety. The transfer of ownership is affected by a new and independent contract, either by giving the asset as a gift, or selling it at an agreed price. (AlZuhayli, 2002) Conventional hire-purchase, the product is considered as a loan to which interest rate and hiring charges would be applicable and in case of late payment of instalment price, interest would accumulate. But in Islamic hire-purchase, the product is considered as a mode of financing, not a loan and the product would have a profit rate and a mark-up and for late payment of instalment price, only late payment charge pre-agreed would be applicable. Billah) Based on the statements above, the researcher conduct the study among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan to identify the most significantly criteria’s such as perception, competency among car dealers and bank officer and awareness can influence them in order to accept Islamic hire purchase facility. The result for the acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility will be collected by distributed the questionnaire to 200 staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. After that, the analysis will be interpreted by using the SPSS 20. 0 program. 2 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 1. 1 BACKGROUND OF COMPANY JABATAN PELAJARAN NEGERI KELANTAN ESTABLISHMENT HISTORY Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan history start when the director first (formerly called Penguasa Pelajaran) namely Encik Mohd Ghazali B. Mohd Ariffn designate at year 1992. He then awarded with the title Dato’ Bentara Luar and work until year 1930. The office first located in building known by the name of â€Å"Pejabat Panjang†, namely a building nearby Istana Kota Lama. Then in year 1930 an on the other hand Pejabat Pelajaran move on the other hand to other building known by the name of â€Å"Pejabat Pohon Celagi† namely Kelantan State Secretary building, nearby old office building. In year 1965 the office move on the other hand to new building namely Bangunan Persekutuan that is today. From year 1922 to 18 august 1998 there are 25 people Director. They are made up 13 people noble Malay, 10 people noble English and 2 people that noble Chinese. Director Encik Saw Chee Ling had given his service for 12 years. Since colonial era until today, Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan has been expanding rapidly him in effort increase this quality education in accordance with Education Philosophy policy country. Today, Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan has owned 10 sectors that include Sektor Khidmat Pengurusan dan Pembangunan, Sektor Pengurusan Sekolah, Sektor Pengurusan Akademik and Sektor Pendidikan Islam. Under this department also be established State Educational Technology Division. While at district level on the other hand was constituted ten parts of Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah namely Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Kota Bharu, Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Pasir Mas, Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Tumpat, Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Pasir Puteh, Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Bachok, Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Tanah Merah, Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Machang, Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Kuala Krai, Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Gua Musang and Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Jeli. Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 1. 2 PROBLEM STATEMENTS Dual banking system imposes by Bank Negera Malaysia affecting the demand for Islamic financial product. This situation has influenced some staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan to choose Islamic or conventional hire purchase loan for buying car. In this study, staff perception toward Islamic hire purchase facility implies whether they are really known about the AITAB operation itself. Researcher also identify common perception toward AITAB contract which is profit charge are too costly, penalty charge for late payment, accordance with syariah guideline and more Researcher also knows car dealers and bank officers also as importance key player toward acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility. Thus, researcher also identify common problem about competency among car dealers and bank officer whether among them are lack of knowledge about Islamic financial product. Others problem that researcher identify is awareness among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan itself whether they aware about Islamic Hire Purchase facility or not. The common problem on awareness among staff is what Islamic Hire Purchase have compared to conventional, the existence of Islamic financial product, the modus operandi of the AITAB contract itself and more. I. 3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY There are several objectives that have been developed in this research as the following:I. II. III. To examine staff perception toward Islamic hire purchase facility. To identify competency among car dealers and bank officers. To evaluate effects of awareness among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. In this research, researcher identifies the most contributing factor of acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan is awareness. This had be proven by Pearson correlation relationship at r = 0. 837 4 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 1. 4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study will focus on the acceptance towards Al-Ijarah Thumma Al-Bay’, Islamic hire purchase facility among staffs in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. In this research, researcher had pick up about 200 staff from the population of 460 staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan as are respondents to complete the questionnaire. The respondent of this study are all staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan which are mostly involve in hire purchase facility that offered by Islamic and conventional bank. The researcher has chosen this area because of high population. 1. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The first limitation is that the probability of absenteeism of the respondent due to leave or outstation since all respondents is the staff of Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. The second limitation is lack of knowledge. Researcher does not have experience and never been exposed in making a complete research in the university. Researchers will facing difficulties to understand the wor d using by the respondent. The third limitation is uncooperative respondent. In process of gathering the information, researcher will need to collect data through the questionnaire. However, it can be difficult to gain full cooperation and commitment from the respondent and they may think that it does not give any advantage to them. Respondent also will take a very long time to answer the questionnaire and it also will make the researcher take a long time to analysis the data. Corporate constraint also can be a limitation in this study because the respondent cannot give hundred percent performances in answer the questionnaire. 5 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 1. 6 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY To the Manager Help the manager to identify the behaviour of his subordinates and how they react towards the acceptance of Al-Ijarah Thumma Al-Bay’ Islamic Hire Purchase Financing as their source of car financing. To the researcher It will provide better understanding and can give new knowledge to the researcher. The study will be conducted to give a clear picture on the staff’s awareness and acceptance on the AlIjarah Thumma Al-Bay’ Islamic Hire Purchase Financing. The result of the study will help the researcher to know the stuff’s perceptions towards factors that influence stuffs decisions in accepting Islamic Financing Product. To the public The data gathered in this study can help the individual to gain more knowledge about the important and benefits of accepting Al-Ijarah Thumma Al-Bay’ Islamic Hire Purchase Financing as part of their source of car financing. This study may increase the level of awareness and create acceptance among public about Al-Ijarah Thumma Al-Bay’ Islamic Hire Purchase financing as their source of car financing decisions. To others The information may be used by the financial institution to improve the services related with Islamic Car Financing product. This study may provide useful information for further research in this area of interest. The findings of this study could provide some form of empirical data for future research in this area. It could perhaps also help in the more effective implementation of Al-Ijarah Thumma Al-Bay’ Islamic Hire Purchase Financing. 6 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 To the bank There are a lot of benefits of this research to the bank. From this research, it will provide information to the bank on the real scenario. Therefore, the bank can use this information and results to improve its management, services, efficiency and etc. In fact, with this research it will help the bank to come out with new strategies and solutions to monitor its profitability and can improve its performance. Thus, the bank can also use the recommendations suggested by the researcher to improve its performance and position. 7 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 1. 7 DEFINITION OF TERM Al-Ijarah Thumma Al-Bay’ In the context of Islamic finance, the ijarah concept is usually applicable in financing contracts such as in real property financing, vehicle financing, project financing and personal financing. There are also financing products that enable customers to lease assets from Islamic financial institutions with an option to acquire the leased assets at the end of the lease tenure based on the concept of ijarah muntahia bi al-tamlik or al-ijarah thumma al-bai (Bank Negera M. , 2010) Perception Customers’ perceptions are often identified by their level of satisfaction towards particular products or services. (Nurdianawati I. A, 2006) Competency More competent, knowledgeable employees are more likely to design processes and deliver services that conform to customer needs. (Ahmad, 2010). Awareness Research on bank patronage in Malaysia find that almost 100 per cents of Muslims and 75% of non-Muslims were aware of the existence of Islamic banks. Most of them wished to have a relationship with these banks if they had a complete understanding of this system. (Sudin Haron N. A. , 1994) Acceptance AITAB is a name which capture a public acceptance because it provides better features compared to conventional hire-purchase. Muslim customers, who accept and understand its operation, request it as an alternative to conventional hire-purchase. (Nurdianawati I. A, 2006) 8 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 CHAPTER TWO: 2. 0 INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Literature review is important as references and as a guideline to the researcher in conducting research and to search the information. It also used as the supporter to the study that will be conducted. This chapter will discuss about the literature review which relevant to the topic of the study. The purpose is to ensure that no important variable that has in the past been found repeatedly to have had an impact on the problem is ignored. . 1 Acceptance AITAB is a name which capture a public acceptance because it provides better features compared to conventional hire-purchase. Muslim customers, who accept and understand its operation, request it as an alternative to conventional hire-purchase. They will come to an institution which they know offering such Islamic product. For example, many corporate customers com e to Bank Pembangunan to purchase machinery through AITAB facility, because they know the benefits that the facility has to offer, for example, full margin of financing and lower penalty for late payment. Nurdianawati, 2006) Other finding shown AITAB also gains support from the non-Muslims. In some institutions, 60% of their customers are non-Muslims, comprising the Chinese in majority. They can see the advantage of signing up AITAB, which is 1% penalty for late payment, as compared to conventional hire-purchase which imposes 8% penalty. (Bank Negara, 1998) A survey in United Kingdom found the demand for Islamic financing will grow in future if Islamic banks pratice the correct marketing measures. In the research, five (5 %) percents of muslim in United Kingdom are loyal customers to the Islamic financial services. Majority of muslim are still comfortable with the conventional financial services, while only a quater of muslims tend to show preference for Islamic finance. (Humayon, 2004) 9 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 2. 2 Perception Nowadays, in the dual banking system that had been practice by Malaysia giving an effect to the consumer to choose either Islamic Hire Purchase or Conventional hire purchase. Mostly Muslim customers claim that there are no differences between Islamic Hire-Purchase and Conventional Hire Purchase. Islamic banking products are available at two full pledged Islamic banks and at all commercial and merchant banks in Malaysia. However, these products are still not fully accepted by customers. According to Norafifah Ahmad and Sudin Haron (2002), at the end of 2000, total deposit at conventional banks was RM381 billion while total deposit in Islamic Financial Institution was RM31 billion. In the case of loans, RM416 billion was extended by conventional system, and RM21 billion was given by Islamic system. This results indicates that perception of Conventional System were far good than Islamic financial system. Islamic Hire purchase (AITAB) provides better features compared to conventional hirepurchase. Muslim customers, who accept and understand its operation, request it as an alternative to conventional hire-purchase. They will come to an institution which they know offering such Islamic product. Moreover AITAB also gains support from the non-Muslims. In some institutions, 60% of their customers are non-Muslims, comprising the Chinese in majority. They can see the advantage of signing up AITAB, which is 1% penalty for late payment, as compared to conventional hire-purchase which imposes 8% penalty. Nurdianawati, 2006) Perceptions of Malaysian corporate customers of Islamic banking products and services indicated that Islamic banks were not the main choice because of the lack of knowledge. More than half of the respondents (65 %) said they had limited knowledge of the Islamic banking system. This study shows that Islamic banks have not conducted enough programmes to educate people or promo te their products to the public. (Norafifah Ahmad, 2002) 10 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 They showed that 63 % of Muslim respondents possess limited knowledge of IBF. They do not fully understand the operation of IBF even though Islamic banking has been established in Malaysia for more than twenty years. This factor has led to low usage of Islamic banking facilities among the Muslim respondents. (Sudin Haron N. A. , 1994). A similar situation occurred in Singapore, where only 22. 6 percent of Muslims deposit money in Islamic banks solely because of religion (Gerrard, 1997) Another important indicator determining customers’ positive or negative perception is their patronage criteria towards the service provider. In one of the earliest patronage studies on Islamic banking, Erol and El-Bdour (1989) discovered that the most important criteria considered by customers in patronising Islamic banks are provision of fast and efficient services, the bank’s reputation and image, and confidentiality. Others study found that religion is not the main factor encouraging Muslims to choose Islamic banks to hold their funds. Their findings also indicate that bank customers perceived no difference between the services offered by Islamic and conventional banks, the former being perceived as merely duplicating the latter. Erol C. K. -B. , 1990). In addition, many of muslim also doubt of shariah permissibility on the Islamic banking instrument. (Humayon, 2004) In Malaysia, customers’ positive perception towards Islamic banking is far more crucial mainly due to the fact that Islamic banks have to compete with the long established conventional banks in a dual-banking system. Since 1983, Malaysia to d ate has a dual banking system, whereby the Islamic banking system operates in parallel with the conventional system. The former is currently represented by 27 banking institutions, comprising nine Islamic banks and 18 conventional banking institutions (eight commercial banks, four merchant banks and six discount houses) offering Islamic banking products and services under the Islamic Banking Scheme (IBS), also known as Islamic windows. (Bank Negera, 2005) 11 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 2. 3 Competency Customers also may not to choose Islamic Hire Purchase facility for their car financing due to lack of competency among car dealers and bank officers. Most car dealer claimed there is no differences between Islamic and conventional thus give impact to costumer’s decision. The misleading view of AITAB among the customers is partly contributed by the lack of experience and knowledge among bank officers in giving correct and satisfactory explanation about AITAB. Some of these bank officers do not even understand the distinction between AITAB and conventional hire-purchase. Many proclaim that both products are similar especially with regards to its documents, procedures and governance. Hence, they are unable to highlight the advantages and benefits of AITAB as compared to conventional hirepurchase. (Nurdianawati, 2006) More competent, knowledgeable employees are more likely to design processes and deliver services that conform to customer needs. (Ahmad, 2010). In addition, development of appropriate employee skills and competencies is important determinant of better service quality and favorable consumer perceptions about service delivery (Chung, 2002) Furthermore, a dealer acts as a middleman between a financial institution and a customer. In Malaysian context, the customer usually approaches the dealer first for the purpose of purchasing a particular vehicle before applying hire-purchase facility from a financial institution. In fact, the customer’s choice between conventional and Islamic financing facility depends mostly on the dealer’s explanation and recommendation. Ideally, a dealer with a high Islamic conscience proposes AITAB to the customer and able to explain how the facility works, its advantages and differences from conventional facility. However, not all dealers are equipped with in-depth understanding of AITAB facility. Thus, it is expected that they would not be able to educate their customers accordingly. In reality these dealers even tend to propose conventional facility either because their understanding of AITAB is limited or they 12 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 do not want to expose their customers to an unnecessarily complicated situation. (Nurdianawati, 2006). In addition, many dealers that are lack in understanding of AITAB facility assume the facility offered by Islamic and conventional bank are totally same. They only concern with their commission for their sales. 2. 4 Awareness. Haron et al. (1994) who pioneered in the research on bank patronage in Malaysia find that almost 100 per cent of Muslims and 75% of non-Muslims were aware of the existence of Islamic banks. Most of them wished to have a relationship with these banks if they had a complete understanding of this system. In Singapore, a study by Gerrard and Cunningham (1997) revealed that the Singaporeans, Muslims or non-Muslims, are generally unaware of the principles of Islamic banking. Study in Humayon (2004) shown some of the muslims may not aware of the Islamic financial instrument in the financial market. Others study on Singapore by Haron, Ahmad and Planisek (1994) revealed that only 40 percent of Muslim customers consider religion as an important factor in patronizing banks. Similarly, there is general lack of awareness of Islamic banking system among Singaporean communities, be they Muslims or non-Muslims. These results suggest that Islamic banks do not need to rely on the religious factor as a strategy in attracting customers, but they should focus more on provision of quality and efficient services. One of the contributing factors to this absence of awareness among Muslims is the lack of understanding of Islamic banking. A study conducted in Singapore showed that only 20. 7 percent know the meaning of ‘Riba’ and 31 percent know the meaning of Shari’ah. The study also showed that only 3 percent can explain accurately the meaning of Ijarah, Mudarabah 13 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 and Musharakah. Surprisingly, no one could explain accurately the meaning of Murabaha (Gerrard, 1997) Rammal and Zurbruegg (2006) found that it is important for financial institution to understand the dynamism of customer segmentation, build customer relationship and address requirement and preferences of specific segments. By doing so, it will boost up customer identification and create awareness among consumers. This finding then supported by Harun et al. (1992) where there is no significant difference between Muslims and Non-Muslims in their selection criteria. Islamic banking product used different names for their product and it has cause several difficulties and misunderstanding by customers, some claimed that it is a religious product that only meant for Muslims, and some just find it too difficult to learn the names therefore they stay away (Nordin, 2001). According to them again, what is actually taught to the Malaysians since their pre-school period is aqidah and understanding of Islamic principles but little emphasis is given to the mu’amalat or the daily transaction activities according to Islam. In another study of Malaysian commercial customers and their views of Islamic financial services, Haron et al. (2002) noted that 65% of the respondents admitted to having limited knowledge of Islamic banking, while at the same time indicating that they believed the concept had good potential in the Malaysian market. Bley and Kuehn (2004) found a high level of ignorance among the 300 interviewed Muslim with regard to what constitutes acceptable Islamic finance principles. He reported that the higher the religious commitment and the lower the level of general education, the stronger the preference for Islamic over conventional finance. His study also revealed that overall; students’ knowledge of conventional and Islamic finance terms and concepts was surprisingly low among students in United Arab Emirates. 14 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, it will focus on the research methodology that will use in this study. In essence, research methodology will provide researcher the needed information that guides researcher to make informed decisions to successfully deal with the problems. The information gathered could be the result of the analysis of data gathered firsthand or the data that are already available. Research methodology will presents the nature of study, data sources, pilot study and reliability test, data collection and data analysis technique. 3. 1 POPULATION AND SAMPLING DESIGN According to Sekaran, (2006), population is a complete group of entities sharing some common set of characteristics. For this research the population is among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu. This research is using sampling frame; meaning is concerned with the selection of a subset of individual from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. (Malhotra, 2004) in his writing define sample frame as a lists of elements from which a sample may be drawn for identifying the target population. A sampling frame is a representation of the elements of the target population. In this research, the sampling frame is the staff at Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. The populations taken are 200 from 460 staff. 3. 2 SAMPLE SIZE Sample is a subset, or some part, of a large population. In research, sampling is important because the researcher intend to come up with accurate and reliable findings in order to be able use for further research. The sample size for this study is the actual number of subjects chosen as a sample to represent the population characteristics, which is according to Sekaran, (2006). Refer to Roscoe (1975), sample size larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research. So, the researcher decided that the sample of 200 15 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 012 respondents is appropriate to represent the population of staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. 3. 3 SAMPLING METHOD Sampling is the process of selecting items from the population so that the sample characteristics can be generalized to the population. Sampling involves both design choice and sample size decisions (Sekaran, 2006). The idea of sampling is to select a few samples from a bigger group known as population, so that it becomes a basis for estimating or predicting a fact, situation or outcome regarding the actual number of group under study. The method used for this study is convenience sampling. It is the method of drawing samples that does not impose any restrictions. This is also the least reliable sampling that is cheap and convenience. 3. 3. 1 Convenience Sampling Technique Convenience sampling refers to the collection of information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide it (Sekaran, 2006). Meanwhile, Cooper and Schindler (2006), defined convenience sampling is non-probability sampling where researchers use any readily available individuals as participants. It is the most often used during the exploratory phase of the research project and it is perhaps the best way of getting some basic information quickly and efficiently. 3. 4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION In this research, the data gathered parallel to the objectives of the study. The methods of data collection that the researcher used to collect the data were primary data and secondary data. 16 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 3. 4. 1 PRIMARY DATA It is the data collected for a specific purpose from original sources. Primary data been obtained by distribution of the respondents selected. The entire questionnaires are collected personally. In this research, the primary data was collected from the personally administered questionnaire. Personally Administered Questionnaire The questionnaire has been designed according to the needs of the topic study. It is to ensure that the respondents would be fully understood and answer all the questions since there is personal administered question. In designing the questionnaire’s questions, the content, structure and appearance would give an impact to the respondents’ attitude. Thus, all these things should be properly organized. In the questionnaire designs, the researcher divided it into 3 sections which include as follows: Section A – Section A comprises questions pertaining to their personal particulars. The first part of the questionnaire was divided into 2 areas of information. One was on the personal information and the one on others Islamic financial product. Section B – Section B focused on obtaining information on dependent variable. It is the customer selection criteria for bank. This section is designed by using a Likert Scale. The student had to circle the appropriate response with the statement from a scale of (1-5) ranging from the caption ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’. Through the 5 point scale, the researcher could decide to what the acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. Section C Criteria I – Criteria I focused on obtaining information on effect of perception in acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility. This section also used a Likert Scale. This scale will be 5 point 17 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 012 scale wills response of the participant toward on perception towards acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. Criteria II – Criteria II focused on obtaining information on effect of competency in acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility. This sect ion also used a Likert Scale. This scale will be 5 point scale wills response of the participant toward on competency among bank officer and car dealers towards acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. Criteria III – Criteria III focused on obtaining information on effect of awareness in acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility. This section also used a Likert Scale. This scale will be 5 point scale wills response of the participant toward awareness in towards acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan 3. 4. 2 SECONDARY DATA Secondary data were obtained through searching the journal which published reported of previous researchers that different in authors, perceptions and theories. The data and information are also gathered from the website. 8 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 3. 5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The research model shows that the dependent variable is the acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility. This dependent variable is expected to have a significant relationship with personal characteristics, perception, competency and awareness as independent variables. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE Perception Acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility Competency Awareness Figure 3. 5. 1: The Theoretical Framework of the study. RESEARCH VARIABLES Two main types of variables that are used in this research include dependent variable and independent variable. DEPENDENT VARIABLE The dependent variable that used in this study is Acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase INDEPENDENT VARIABLE The independent variables that are used in this research are perception, competency and awareness. 19 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 3. 6 HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis 1 (Perception) Ho: There is no significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase acility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and perception. H1: There is significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and perception. Hypothesis 2 (Competency) Ho: There is no significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Neger i Kelantan and competency. H1: There is significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and competency. Hypothesis 3 (Awareness) Ho: There is no significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and awareness. H1: There is significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and awareness. 3. 7 DATA ANALYSIS AND ADMINISTRATION Data analysis is a procedure to analyze data or information that obtains during the research. In order to achieve the research objective, the data that been obtained from the respondent must answered or fulfill the expectations. In this research, the researcher wants to measure which is the most significant criteria in acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan. 20 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 The procedure of the analysis that used is by using the SPSS 20. 0 software application. All the data from the questionnaire that answered by the respondents had been analyze using this software. The process of entailing earrangement, breaching down, reduction and separation of data into as many as needed to determine their nature, relative important, functions and interrelationships. In completing this study, it will includes some basis data analysis including reliability analysis, frequency analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression by using SPSS 20. 0 program. 3. 7. 1 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS According to Sekaran (2006), the reliability of a measure is established by testing for both consistency and stability. Consistency indicates how well the items measuring a concept hang together as a set. The reliability will ensure to test the data. Reliability is an attest to the consistency and stability of the measure instrument. The reliability of a measure indicates the extent to which it is without bias (error free) and hence ensures consistent measure across time and across the various items in the instrument. The most commonly reliability test that has used is Cronbach’s Alpha. The Cronbach’s Alpha can be interpreted as a correlation coefficient and it range in value from 0 to 1. 3. 7. FREQUENCY ANALYSIS According to Cooper and Schindler (2006), frequency distribution is ordered array of all values for a variable. In order to analyze the whole information of research question based on respondent’s profile information of the respondents such as gender, marital status, level of income and age. Frequency distribution is also simply reports the number of the responses that ea ch questions received. It is the simplest way of determining the empirical distributions of the variables. The frequency distribution is a display of the frequency occurrence of each score value. The frequency distribution can be display is many form such as tabular and graphical form. In this study, the frequency distribution had been measure the questionnaire in section A that it is about respondent’s profile such as gender, age, race, 21 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 religion, level of education, marital status, salary, sector and had been used any Islamic financial product. 3. 7. 3 PEARSON’S CORRELATION ANALYSIS The other name of Pearson’s coefficient of correlation is Pearson Correlation Matrix. The coefficient of correlation is used to determine the magnitude, direction and significant level of relationship between dependent and independent variables. As a descriptive technique, it is very powerful since this method indicates whether variables share is something in common with each other. 3. 7. 4 MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS The multiple regressions describe the strength of the linear relationship between two variables when one is considered the independent variable and the other is the dependent variable (Cooper and Schindler, 2006). Regression is a powerful tool for summarizing the nature of the relationship between variables and for making predictions of likely values of the dependent variables. Regression analysis aids in understanding how much of the variance in the dependent variable may be explained by a set of predictors. For regression coefficient, estimates, model fit and R squared change are chosen in this study. 22 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 4. 0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher will identify the questionnaires response rate from the respondents. After collecting the data, now the researcher able to analyze and interpret it using the SPSS 20 software. Techniques using in interpreting data is by using reliability analysis, frequency analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression in SPSS programs. These steps are important to see the relationship between the variables and to know the variables are significant or not. 4. 1 FREQUENCIES ANALYSIS A frequency analysis shows the frequency of occurrence of each score value of the research data. The objective is to obtain a count of number of responses associated with different values of the variable. This analysis is appropriate and suitable to analyze the question in Section A which is respondents profile such as gender, race, religion, level of education, maritial status, age, salary, sector, used others Islamic finance product. TABLE 4. 1. 1 Frequency of Section A- Demographics’ profile Statistics GENDER AGE RACE RELIGION LEVEL EDUCATION MARITIAL STATUS SALARY SECTOR OTHERS ISLAMIC FINANCIAL PRODUCT Valid N Missing Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance Skewness Std. Error of Skewness Minimum Maximum 0 1. 58 2. 00 2 . 496 . 246 -. 306 . 172 1 2 0 2. 44 2. 00 2 . 889 . 790 . 068 . 172 1 4 0 1. 05 1. 00 1 . 240 . 058 5. 207 . 172 1 3 0 1. 05 1. 00 1 . 208 . 043 4. 423 . 172 1 2 0 2. 71 3. 00 4 1. 215 1. 475 . 006 . 172 1 5 0 1. 83 2. 00 2 . 419 . 175 -1. 081 . 172 1 3 0 3. 09 3. 00 3 1. 206 1. 455 . 616 . 172 1 6 0 3. 59 3. 00 1 2. 617 6. 847 . 872 . 172 1 10 0 3. 05 3. 00 5 1. 583 2. 506 -. 021 . 172 1 5 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 23 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 Profile (n=200) Gender Male Female Age 21 – 30 years 31 – 40 years 41 – 50 years 51 years and above Race Malay Chinese Indian Religion Islam Buddha Level Education SPM STPM Diploma Bachelor Degree Maritial Status Single Married Others Salary RM 1000 and Below RM1001 – RM2000 RM2001 – RM3000 RM3001 – RM4000 RM4001 – RM5000 RM5001 and Above Sector Sektor Khidmat Pengurusan Pembangunan Sektor Pengurusan Sekolah Sektor Pengurusan Akedemik Sektor Pengurusan Pembangunan Sektor Pendidikan Islam Sektor Penilaian Peperiksaan Sektor Jaminan Kualiti Sektor Psikologi Kaunseling Sektor ICT Other Islamic Financial Product Islamic Vehicle Financing Islamic House Financing Islamic Personal Financing Islamic Credit Card Takaful Frequency Percent Valid percent 42. 5 57. 5 15. 0 38. 5 34. 5 12. 0 95. 5 4. 0 0. 5 95. 5 4. 5 21. 0 25. 5 19. 5 30. 0 4. 0 19. 0 79. 5 1. 5 4. 5 32. 0 33. 0 15. 5 11. 0 4. 0 30. 0 14. 5 16. 0 5. 0 10. 0 13. 0 2. 5 6. 5 2. 5 25. 5 17. 0 14. 0 14. 5 29. 0 Cumulative percent 42. 5 100. 0 15. 0 53. 5 88. 0 100. 0 95. 5 99. 5 100. 0 95. 5 100. 0 21. 0 46. 5 66. 0 96. 0 100. 0 19. 0 98. 5 100. 0 4. 5 36. 69. 5 85. 0 96. 0 100. 0 30. 0 44. 5 60. 5 65. 5 75. 5 88. 5 91. 0 97. 5 100. 0 25. 5 42. 5 56. 5 71. 0 100. 0 85 115 30 77 69 24 191 8 1 191 9 42 51 39 60 8 38 159 3 9 64 66 31 22 8 60 29 32 10 20 26 5 13 5 51 34 28 29 58 42. 5 57. 5 15. 0 38. 5 34. 5 12. 0 95. 5 4. 0 0. 5 95. 5 4. 5 21. 0 25. 5 19. 5 30. 0 4. 0 19. 0 79. 5 1. 5 4. 5 32. 0 33. 0 15. 5 11. 0 4. 0 30. 0 14. 5 16. 0 5. 0 10. 0 13. 0 2. 5 6. 5 2. 5 25. 5 17. 0 14. 0 14. 5 29. 0 24 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 Table 4. 2. 1 provides an exploration of the sample for the investigation. The total number of respondents was 200 and the demographic profile of the respondents is shown in table. Among the demographic profile of respondents discussed are gender, age, race, religion, level education, maritial status, salary, sector and used others islamic financial product. Respondents were 42. 5% from male group and 57. 5% of female group. From the race‘s profile, 95. 5% of the respondents are malay, 4. 0% of the respondents are chinese and 0. 5% respondents are indian. Besides that, percentages of the religion profile, 95. 5% of the respondent are Islam and followed by 4. 5% respondent are buddha. Meanwhile, in terms of level education, 21. % of the respondents are SPM, 25. 5% of STPM, 19. 5% of Diploma, 30. 0% of Bachelor and 4. 0% of Master. The majority of respondents are married which indicated 79. 5%, 19. 0% are single and followed by others 1. 5%. Reviewing on the age‘s profile, 15. 0% of respondents were in the ages between 21 – 30 years old, 38 . 5% were between 31 – 40 years old, 34. 5% were the age of 41 – 50 years old and 12. 0% the age of 51 years old above. From the salary’s profile, 4. 5% of respondents were below RM 1000, 32. 0% were between RM1001 – RM2000, 33. 0% were between RM2001 – RM 3000, 15. 5% were between RM 3001 – RM 4000, 11. 0% were between RM 4001 – RM 5000 and 4. % were RM 5001 and above. Reviewing on the sector‘s profile, 30. 0% of respondents were in the Sektor Khidmat Pengurusan Pembangunan, 14. 5% were in Sektor Pengurusan Sekolah, 16. 0% were in Sektor Pengurusan Akedemik, 5. 0% were in Sektor Pengurusan Pembangunan Kemanusiaan, 10. 0% were in Sektor Pendidikan Islam, 13. 0% were in Sektor Penilaian dan 25 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 Peperiksaan, 5. 0% were in Sektor Jaminan Kualiti, 6. 5% were in Sektor Psikologi Kaunseling and 2. 5% were in Se ktor ICT. Meanwhile, in terms of used others islamic financial product, 25. % of respondent were in islamic vehicle financing, 17. 0% were in islamic house financing, 14. 0% were in islamic personal financing, 14. 5% were in islamic credit card and 29. 0% were in takaful. 26 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 4. 2 ANALYSIS OF RELIABILITY The important of the reliability of a measure is to determine the stability and consistency the questions that are distributed to the respondents. This reliability is to test the goodness of the data. Cronbach’s alpha is most common used to measure the reliability. The closer Cronbach’s alpha is to 1, is the better. In almost every case, Cronbach’s alpha is an adequate test of internal consistency reliability. In this study, the results of reliability test are shown in the table that had separate according to each of the variables. Reliability of measure is established by testing for both consistency and stability. RELIABILITY Less than 0. 6 Range 0. 7 Over 0. 8 RANGES Poor Acceptable Good Source: Sekaran (2006) Alpha Coefficient Ranges ; 0. 6 0. 6 to ; 0. 7 0. 7 to ; 0. 8 0. 8 to ; 0. 9 0. 9 Strength of Association Poor Moderate Good Very Good Excellent Table 4. 2. 1: Ranges of Reliability 27 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 012 Reliability Analysis done when questions from all variables were well structured and can be understands by respondents. It happened and because the Cronbach’s Alpha for all variables higher than 0. 6. It means respondents answered the questions without bias, with consist ent and stable. The closer Alpha value is to 1, the higher the internal consistency reliability. The results of all variables Reliability Analysis were shown in table below: TABLE 4. 2. 2: Reliability Output for section B – Acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase facility Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Cronbach’s N of Alpha Alpha Based Items on Standardized Items . 952 . 952 7 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Scale Corrected Item Deleted Variance if Item-Total Item Deleted Correlation AC : AITAB is the best choice for vehicle financing AC : Recommed AITAB contract to others AC : Will Use again AITAB contract AC : AITAB is suitable with financial planning AC : As muslim, no choice expect AITAB contract AC : Willing to switch to AITAB AC : Understanding make accepting for AITAB 23. 89 23. 92 23. 94 23. 89 23. 98 23. 92 23. 85 25. 526 25. 566 25. 619 25. 606 25. 517 26. 279 25. 860 . 871 . 864 . 852 . 844 . 853 . 742 . 829 Squared Multiple Correlation . 803 . 795 . 812 . 806 . 744 . 591 . 730 Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted . 942 . 942 . 943 . 944 . 943 . 952 . 945 Based on the reliability statistics table, the Cronbach’s alpha for the 6 items show the reliability of 0. 952 which mean that this dependent variable is reliable. The result is excellent because according to Sekaran (2010), 0. 9 is excellent. 28 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 TABLE 4. 2. 3: Reliability Output for section C – Perception Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Cronbach’s N of Alpha Alpha Based Items on Standardized Items . 892 . 893 6 Scale Mean if Item Deleted PR : Known about AITAB PR : AITAB different from convensional hire purchase PR : Accordance with syariah guideline PR : Good alternative to acquire assets PR : 1% penalty charge for late payment is suitable PR : Use AITAB as first choice 19. 56 19. 34 19. 24 19. 33 19. 42 19. 10 Item-Total Statistics Scale Corrected Variance if Item-Total Item Deleted Correlation 14. 570 14. 778 14. 77 16. 421 14. 788 15. 413 . 724 . 783 . 768 . 637 . 681 . 694 Squared Multiple Correlation . 615 . 716 . 689 . 426 . 550 . 574 Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted . 872 . 862 . 865 . 885 . 880 . 876 Based on the reliability statistics table, the Cronbach’s alpha for the 6 items of perception show the reliability of 0. 892 which mean that this independent variable is reliable. The result is a very good because according to Sekaran (2010), 0. 8 to 0. 9 is very good. 29 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 TABLE 4. 2. 4: Reliability Output for section C – Competency Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Cronbach’s N of Alpha Alpha Based Items on Standardized Items . 859 . 861 5 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Scale Corrected Item Deleted Variance if Item-Total Item Deleted Correlation CM : Car dealers inform no different between AITAB and conventional hire purchase CM : Car dealers lack of information and knowladge about AITAB CM : Car dealers only thinking their sales bonus CM : Bank officer respect your dicision to use AITAB contract CM : Bank officer give good respond on request use AITAB Squared Multiple Correlation Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted 15. 13 9. 983 .728 .628 .815 15. 14 10. 218 .671 .579 .831 14. 87 9. 846 .721 .548 .818 14. 93 11. 497 .645 .725 .838 14. 93 11. 597 .631 .727 .841 Based on the reliability statistics table, the Cronbach’s alpha for the 5 of competency show the reliability of 0. 859 which mean that this dependent variable is reliable. The result is a very good because according to Sekaran (2010), 0. 8 to 0. 9 is very good. 30 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 TABLE 4. 2. 5: Reliability Output for section C – Awareness Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Cronbach’s N of Alpha Alpha Based Items on Standardized Items . 897 . 900 6 Scale Mean if Item Deleted AW : Know existance of islamic banking AW : Know AITAB is one of islamic finance product AW : AITAB is replace for onventional hire purchase AW : Know about 1% charge if late payment AW : Know about AITAB had been use by non muslim AW : Know about last payment in AITAB is for payment buying asset 18. 80 19. 07 Item-Total Statistics Scale Corrected Variance if Item-Total Item Delet ed Correlation 17. 347 16. 538 . 660 . 753 Squared Multiple Correlation . 535 . 695 Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted . 888 . 875 19. 20 19. 19 19. 19 17. 005 15. 592 15. 361 .756 . 734 . 745 .656 . 592 . 629 .876 . 878 . 876 19. 38 16. 085 .714 .585 .881 Based on the reliability statistics table, the Cronbach’s alpha for the 6 items of awareness show the reliability of 0. 897 which mean that this independent variable is reliable. The result is a very good because according to Sekaran (2010), 0. 8 to 0. 9 is very good. 31 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 4. 3 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS Correlation analysis is used for explained whether there is an existence of association and the strength of the relationship between the independent variables (perception, competency, and awareness) towards the dependent variable (acceptance of islamic hire purchase facility). Sekaran (2006) suggested that it would be appropriated to use Pearson Correlation Matrix where it is the first issues to determine is whether the correlation coefficient is statistically significant or not significant. The rules of thumb have been proposed to characterize the strength of the association between variables, based on the absolute size of the correlation coefficient. Correlation between Are said to be 0. 8 and 1. 0 Very Strong 0. 6 and 0. 8 Strong 0. 4 and 0. 6 Moderate 0. 2 and 0. 4 Weak 0 and 0. 2 Very Weak Table 4. 3. 1: Rule of Thumb of Correlation Coefficient Size 32 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 Correlations Mean Of Perception 1 Mean Of Acceptance . 789** . 000 200 1 200 Pearson Correlation Mean Of Perception Sig. (1-tailed) N 200 Pearson Correlation . 789** Mean Of Sig. (1-tailed) . 00 Acceptance N 200 **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (1-tailed). Table 4. 3. 2 : Pearson Correlation Coefficient between Mean Perception and Mean Acceptance Correlation analysis is conducted to test the relationship between selection decision and service quality. The result of Pearson Corre lation tests showed that there is a strong significant relationship (0. 789) between these two variables. The one-tailed significance test is p ; 0. 000 showing that the outcome of the test is not by chance, and therefore can be confidently accepted or trusted, therefore reject the null hypothesis. r(200) = 0. 789, p ; 0. 0001, one-tailed 33 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 Correlations Mean Of Competency Mean Of Competency Pearson Correlation Sig. (1-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (1-tailed) N 1 200 . 724** . 000 200 Mean Of Acceptance . 724** . 000 200 1 200 Mean Of Acceptance **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (1-tailed). Table 4. 3. 3 : Pearson Correlation Coefficient between Mean Competency and Mean Acceptance Correlation analysis is conducted to test the relationship between competency and acceptance. The result of Pearson Correlation tests showed that there is a strong significant relationship (0. 24) between these two variables. The one-tailed significance test is p=0. 000 showing that the outcome of the test is not by chance, and therefore can be confidently accepted or trusted, therefore reject the null hypothesis. r(200) = 0. 724, p;0. 0001, one-tailed 34 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 Correlations Mean Of Awareness Pearson 1 Correlation Mean Of Sig. (1-tailed) Awareness N 200 Pearson . 837** Correlation Mean Of Sig. (1-tailed) . 000 Acceptance N 200 **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (1-tailed). Mean Of Acceptance . 837** . 000 200 1 200 Table 4. 3. : Pearson Correlation Coefficient between Mean Awareness and Mean Acceptance Correlation analysis is conducted to test the relationship between awareness and acceptance. The result of Pearson Correlation tests showed that there is a very strong significant relationship (0. 837) between these two variables. The one-tailed significance test is p=0. 000 showing that the outcome of the test is not by chance, and therefore can be confidently accepted or trusted, therefore reject the null hypothesis. r(200) = 0. 837 , p;0. 0001, one-tailed 35 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajara n Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 4. 4 REGRESSION ANALYSIS Regression is another technique for measuring the linear association between dependent and independent variables. It become as a subsequent after the correlation coefficient measure. Although regression and correlation are closely related, regression assumes the dependent variable is predicatively linked to the independent variable. The result of the Regression analysis were shown as below. Table 4. 4. 1 : Regressions – Model Summary Model Summaryb R Square Adjusted R Square . 753 . 750 Model 1 R . 868a Std. Error of the Estimate . 421 a. Predictors: (Constant), Mean Of Awareness, Mean Of Competency, Mean Of Perception b. Dependent Variable: Mean Of Acceptance 4. 4. 2: ANOVA ANOVAa Model Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 106. 215 34. 781 140. 996 df 3 196 199 Mean Square 35. 405 . 177 F 199. 518 Sig. .000b 1 a. Dependent Variable: Mean Of Acceptance b. Predictors: (Constant), Mean Of Awareness, Mean Of Competency, Mean Of Perception 36 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 Table 4. 4. 3 : Coefficient Coefficientsa Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Beta Error . 161 . 162 . 229 . 218 . 496 Model t Sig. Collinearity Statistics Tolerance VIF (Constant) Mean Of . 251 . 072 Perception 1 Mean Of . 229 . 055 Competency Mean Of . 522 . 069 Awareness a. Dependent Variable: Mean Of Acceptance .997 3. 502 4. 195 7. 535 .320 . 001 . 000 . 000 . 294 . 466 . 291 3. 406 2. 144 3. 437 Regression analysis were employed to test the influence of three important variable of interest namely perception, competency and awareness. The r-square statistics in the model of summary is 0. 753 or 75. 3%. This implies that 75. 3% of the variation or changes in the dependent variable i. e. acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility can be attributed to the three independent variables; however the remaining 24. 7% is not known and need further investigation. The significance level produced by the ANOVA table showed that the p value is less than 0. 05 implying that the model is valid and the result of the relationship is not by chance. Therefore we reject the null hypothesis. Finally, researcher found that the three independent variables, perception, competency and awareness have provided enough evidence to influence the acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility. 37 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 4. 5 HYPOTHESIS TESTING Insignificant = Accept Null Hypothesis (Ho) / Reject Alternate Hypothesis (H1) Significant = Accept Alternate Hypothesis (H1) / Reject Null Hypothesis (Ho) P ; 0. 05 P ; 0. 05 After made several analyses to all variables for this study, all hypotheses should be discussed to determine its relevancy and whether it is supported or not. For this study, Pearson Correlation Analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent and dependent variable. Hypothesis 1 (Perception) Ho: There is no significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and perception. H1: There is significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and perception. The result from Pearson correlation shows perception significantly has positive correlated to acceptance at the relationship (r =0. 789). Thus, significant relationship exists and the H1 accepted and reject the H0. Hypothesis 2 (Competency) Ho: There is no significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase acility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and competency. H1: There is significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and competency. The result from Pearson correlation shows competency significantly has positive correlated to acceptan ce of Islamic hire purchase facility at the relationship (r =0. 724). Thus, significant relationship exists and the H1 accepted and reject the H0. 38 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 Hypothesis 3 (Awareness) Ho: There is no significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase acility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and awareness. H1: There is significant relationship between acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan and awareness. The result from Pearson correlation shows awareness significantly has positive correlated to acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility at the relationship (r =0. 837). Thus, significant relationship exists and the H1 accepted and reject the H0. 39 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 CHAPTER F IVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. 0 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the major findings of this study and to identify whether the finding met with the result conducted. Besides that, the researcher also gives some suggestions and ideas from the result. 5. 1 CONCLUSION In this research, hypothesis was initially tested by using the correlation coefficient to determine its significant level. From the analysis, the results indicated that all the three independent variables in the hypotheses were found to be significant at the 0. 01 level of significant at the (1 tailed). In order to substantiate the hypotheses, the multiple regression analysis was further analyzed. The R-square (R2) value of the model indicates 75. 3% of the variations explained the all independent variable whereas the remaining 24. % cannot be explained and needed further exploration in terms of other concepts which were not included in the study. As a conclusion, all the independent variables have relationship based on the correlation analysis. Awareness was the m ost factors determinant acceptance of Islamic hire purchase facility among staff in Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan followed by perception and competency. 40 Acceptance Of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility: A Case Study among staff In Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kelantan, Kota Bharu 2012 5. 2 RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings result, the researcher has provided some of the recommendations for this study in order to overcome the problem faced. First of all, this research was successfully done to know the relationships between those independents and dependent variable. Perception Provide Islamic Hire Purchase facility (AITAB) information. Information about Islamic Hire Purchase facility should be easy to find by everybody because majority workers can effort to buy a car. Thus, information should be easily access by consumer in order to get a clear view about Islamic hire purchase facility. For example, Bank Negera Malaysia through website, information about Islamic Hire Purchase facility can be downloaded by anyone. Competency Training the staff Customer is How to cite Acceptance of Islamic Hire Purchase Facility, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Peter Brook Essay Example

Peter Brook Paper How do you think that Peter Brook has employed the ideas/techniques of the practitioners detailed in Mitters study? Please refer to Brooks own writings, particularly The Shifting Point, in answering this question. Peter Brook is one of the worlds most famous directors and has much in-depth knowledge and experience of the theatre. Brook is a key figure in modern theatre, building on the innovations of earlier practitioners and continuing that uniquely twentieth century institution, the directors theatre. (Halfyard, 2000:http://www.maxopus. com/essays/8songs_m. htm) Brook is known as the leading director of his generation (Peter Hall) and he claims he can take any empty space and call it a bare stage, but where did he get his inspiration? Who are his influences? In this essay, I am going to try and find any similarities between Brooks theatre techniques and those of Konstantin Stanislavsky, Bertolt Brecht and Jerzy Grotowski. I am looking for if he has more preference towards one of these directors or uses a combination of each of their rehearsal methods with his actors. Shomit Mitters study, Systems of Rehearsal, looks at the process of rehearsal according to Brook, associating his rehearsal techniques with those created by Stanislavsky, Grotowski and Brecht. In Mitters introduction at first, I felt a sense of criticism towards Brook; Brook seemed to me more a mimic than an inventor (Mitter, 1992:30) and he mentions the extent of Brooks debt to each of the above directors. Although in the latter part of Mitters introduction, he goes on to say that it is extraordinary how Brook showed such a likeness with such completely different directors: We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I began to feel that his ability to absorb the influence of vastly dissimilar theatres could only be seen as an achievement. (Mitter, 1992:4) In Brooks study The Shifting Point, looking back on his career in theatre, he speaks about a misunderstanding that exists in theatre which is the assumption that theatrical process falls into two stages; the first: making, and the second: selling. Brook then shows disagreement with Stanislavsky: Even in the title of Stanislavskys great work Building a Character, this misunderstanding persists, implying that a character can be built up like a wall, until one day the last brick is laid and the character is complete. To my mind, it is just the opposite. I would say that the process consists not of two stages but of two phases. First: preparation. Second: birth. This is very different. (Brook, 1987:7) In one of the very few references to Stanislavsky in Brooks book The Empty Space, Brook describes this same subject very briefly, explaining that a character isnt a static thing and it cant be built like a wall. (Brook, 1968:114) This emphasis on how he wants to shape his actors, prove that he wants his actors to be constantly learning, encountering new approaches to acting and experiencing different practical exercises within the rehearsal process. Brook does not refer to Stanislavsky as often as I expected in both The Shifting Point and The Empty Space, whereas Mitters first chapter in his book shows immense comparison between Stanislavsky and Brook. Like Stanislavsky, Brook believes that the entire corpus of objectively available material on the character is insufficient. The actors need a far more detailed picture of the world in which their characters live. (Mitter, 1992:28) This method Stanislavsky employed consisted of questioning each actor and asking each one about their characters lives; the information that was not written in the text. The actors, for example, were asked to answer questions about their individual characters family members, the characters profession and where they lived. The questions were created to give a personal view into the character, thinking how they thought and recognising the depth of the character. In order to be, the actor must feel, and in order to feel, the actor must move from the self to the play via the mind. (Mitter,1992:11) Stanislavsky had accepted how set-design could play in creating emotion. Brook also uses the set to help create emotion; Instead of standing their ground four-square they will now run up and down ladders The life of these exchanges is, at the last, not to come from the actors words but from their actions. Rhythm and impulse, unfound in the lines, will be found in the ladders. (Mitter,1992:38, from The Making of A Midsummer Nights Dream) This meant that whilst the actors were physically climbing up and down the ladders, it was affecting the pace and the impact of the lines spoken; resulting in what Brook required from the start. He had found a way, physiologically rather than psychologically, to generate what he required from the actors. One would note Brooks repeated insistence that he doesnt want things acted. Echoing precisely Grotowskis claim that acting is abandoned in his theatre. (Mitter, 1992:108) Here, Mitter is describing a similarity Brook has to Jerzy Grotowski; how both their ideal theatre performances are true to life. Brook asked his actors not to perform, not to characterise and do a movement as an everyday person would without exaggerating. The actors arent acting, they are being. (Mitter,1992:109, from Peter Brook: A Theatrical Casebook, 1988) Brooks association with these ideas returns in The Shifting Point: A real person is someone who is open in all parts of himself, a person who has developed himself to the point where he can open himself completely- with his body, with his intelligence, with his feelings, so that none of these channels are blocked.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Biography of Mahmud of Ghazni, First Sultan in History

Biography of Mahmud of Ghazni, First Sultan in History Mahmud of Ghazni (Nov. 2, 971–April 30, 1030), the first ruler in history to assume the title of sultan, founded the Ghaznavid Empire. His title signified that the Muslim Caliph remained the religious leader of the empire despite being the political leader of a vast swath of land, encompassing much of what is now Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India. Fast Facts: Mahmud of Ghazni Known For: First sultan in historyAlso Known As: Yamin ad-Dawlah Abdul-Qasim Mahmud ibn SabukteginBorn: Nov. 2, 971 in Ghazna,  Zabulistan,  Samanid EmpireParents: Abu Mansur Sabuktigin, Mahmud-i Zavuli  Died: April 30, 1030 in GhaznaHonor: Pakistan named its  short-range ballistic missile  the  Ghaznavi Missile  in his honor.Spouse: Kausari JahanChildren: Mohammad  and  Masud (twins) Early Life On Nov. 2, 971, Yamin ad-Dawlah Abdul-Qasim Mahmud ibn Sabuktegin, better known as Mahmud of Ghazni, was born in the town of Ghazna (now known as Ghazni), in southeast Afghanistan. His father Abu Mansur Sabuktegin was Turkic, a former Mamluk warrior-slave from Ghazni. When the Samanid dynasty, based in Bukhara (now in Uzbekistan) began to crumble, Sabuktegin seized control of his hometown of Ghazni in 977. He then conquered other major Afghan cities, such as Kandahar. His kingdom formed the core of the Ghaznavid Empire, and he is credited with founding the dynasty. Not much is known about Mahmud of Ghaznis childhood. He had two younger brothers; the second one, Ismail, was born to Sabuktegins principal wife. The fact that she, unlike Mahmuds mother, was a free-born woman of noble blood would turn out to be key in the question of succession when Sabuktegin died during a military campaign in 997. Rise to Power On his deathbed, Sabuktegin passed over his militarily and diplomatically skilled eldest son Mahmud, 27, in favor of the second son, Ismail. It seems likely that he chose Ismail because he was not descended from slaves on both sides, unlike the elder and younger brothers. When Mahmud, who was stationed at Nishapur (now in Iran), heard of his brothers appointment to the throne, he immediately marched east to challenge Ismails right to rule. Mahmud overcame his brothers supporters in 998, seized Ghazni, took the throne for himself, and placed his younger brother under house arrest for the rest of his life. The new sultan would rule until his own death in 1030. Expanding the Empire Mahmuds early conquests expanded the Ghaznavid realm to roughly the same footprint as the ancient Kushan Empire. He employed typical Central Asian military techniques and tactics, relying primarily on a highly mobile horse-mounted cavalry, armed with compound bows. By 1001, Mahmud had turned his attention to the fertile lands of the Punjab, now in India, which lay southeast of his empire. The target region belonged to fierce but fractious Hindu Rajput kings, who refused to coordinate their defense against the Muslim threat from Afghanistan. In addition, the Rajputs used a combination of infantry and elephant-mounted cavalry, a formidable but slower-moving form of army than the Ghaznavids horse cavalry. Ruling a Huge State Over the next three decades, Mahmud of Ghazni would make more than a dozen military strikes into Hindu and Ismaili kingdoms to the south. By the time of his death, Mahmuds empire stretched to the shores of the Indian Ocean at southern Gujarat. Mahmud appointed local vassal kings to rule in his name in many of the conquered regions, easing relations with non-Muslim populations. He also welcomed Hindu and Ismaili soldiers and officers into his army. However, as the cost of constant expansion and warfare began to strain the Ghaznavid treasury in the later years of his reign, Mahmud ordered his troops to target Hindu temples and strip them of vast quantities of gold. Domestic Policies The Sultan Mahmud loved books and honored learned men. In his home base at Ghazni, he built a library to rival that of the Abbasid caliphs court in Baghdad, now in Iraq. Mahmud of Ghazni also sponsored the construction of universities, palaces, and grand mosques, making his capital city the jewel of Central Asia. Final Campaign and Death In 1026, the 55-year-old sultan set out to invade the state of Kathiawar, on Indias west (Arabian Sea) coast. His army drove as far south as Somnath, famous for its beautiful temple to the Lord Shiva. Although Mahmuds troops successfully captured Somnath, looting and destroying the temple, there was troubling news from Afghanistan. A number of other Turkic tribes had risen up to challenge Ghaznavid rule, including the Seljuk Turks, who had already captured Merv (Turkmenistan) and Nishapur (Iran). These challengers had already begun to nibble away at the edges of the Ghaznavid Empire by the time Mahmud died on April 30, 1030. The sultan was 59 years old. Legacy Mahmud of Ghazni left behind a mixed legacy. His empire would survive until 1187, although it began to crumble from west to east even before his death. In 1151, the Ghaznavid sultan Bahram Shah lost Ghazni itself, fleeing to Lahore (now in Pakistan). The Sultan Mahmud spent much of his life battling against what he called infidels- Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, and Muslim splinter-groups such as the Ismailis. In fact, the Ismailis seem to have been a particular target of his wrath, since Mahmud (and his nominal overlord, the Abbasid caliph) considered them heretics. Nonetheless, Mahmud of Ghazni seems to have tolerated non-Muslim people so long as they did not oppose him militarily. This record of relative tolerance would continue into the following Muslim empires in India: the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857). Sources Duiker, William J. Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History, Vol. 1, Independence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2006.Mahmud Of Ghazni. Afghan Network.Nazim, Muhammad. The Life and Times of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, CUP Archive, 1931.Ramachandran, Sudha. â€Å"Asias Missiles Strike at the Heart.†Ã‚  Asia Times Online., Asia Times, 3 Sept. 2005.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Facts and History About the Country of Cambodia

Facts and History About the Country of Cambodia The 20th century was disastrous for Cambodia. The country was occupied by Japan in World War II and became collateral damage in the Vietnam War, with secret bombings and cross-border incursions. In 1975, the Khmer Rouge regime seized power; they would murder approximately 1/5 of their own citizens in a mad frenzy of violence. Yet not all of Cambodian history is dark and blood-drenched. Between the 9th and 13th centuries, Cambodia was home to the Khmer Empire, which left behind incredible monuments such as Angkor Wat. Hopefully, the 21st century will be much kinder to the people of Cambodia than the last one was. Capital: Phnom Pehn, population 1,300,000 Cities: Battambang, population 1,025,000, Sihanoukville, population 235,000, Siem Reap, population 140,000, Kampong Cham, population 64,000 Cambodias Government Cambodia has a constitutional monarchy, with King Norodom Sihamoni as the current head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government.  The current Prime Minister of Cambodia is Hun Sen, who was elected in 1998.  Legislative power is shared between the executive branch and the bicameral parliament, made up of the 123-member National Assembly of Cambodia and the 58-member Senate. Cambodia has a semi-functional multi-party representative democracy. Unfortunately, corruption is rampant and the government is non-transparent. Population Cambodias population is about 15,458,000 (2014 estimate).  The vast majority, 90%, are ethnic Khmer. Approximately 5% are Vietnamese, 1% Chinese, and the remaining 4% includes small populations of Chams (a Malay people), Jarai, Khmer Loeu, and Europeans. Due to the massacres of the Khmer Rouge era, Cambodia has a very young population. The median age is 21.7 years, and only 3.6% of the population is over the age of 65. (In comparison, 12.6% of US citizens are over 65.) Cambodias birth rate is 3.37 per woman; the infant mortality rate is 56.6 per 1,000 live births.  The literacy rate is 73.6%. Languages The official language of Cambodia is Khmer, which is part of the Mon-Khmer language family. Unlike nearby languages such as Thai, Vietnamese and Lao, spoken Khmer is not tonal. Written Khmer has a unique script, called abugida. Other languages in common use in Cambodia include French, Vietnamese, and English. Religion Most Cambodians (95%) today are Theravada Buddhists. This austere version of Buddhism became prevalent in Cambodia in the thirteenth century, displacing the combination of Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism that was practiced previously. Modern Cambodia also has Muslim citizens (3%) and Christians (2%). Some people practice traditions derived from animism as well, alongside their primary faith. Geography Cambodia has an area of 181,040 square kilometers or 69,900 square miles. It is bordered by Thailand to the west and north, Laos to the north, and Vietnam to the east and south. Cambodia also has a 443 kilometer (275 miles) coastline on the Gulf of Thailand. The highest point in Cambodia is Phnum Aoral, at 1,810 meters (5,938 feet). The lowest point is the Gulf of Thailand coast, at sea level. West-central Cambodia is dominated by Tonle Sap, a large lake. During the dry season, its area is about 2,700 square kilometers (1,042 square miles), but during the monsoon season, it swells to 16,000 sq. km (6,177 sq. miles). Climate Cambodia has a tropical climate, with a rainy monsoon season from May to November, and a dry season from December to April. Temperatures dont vary much from season to season; the range is 21-31 °C (70-88 °F) in the dry season, and 24-35 °C (75-95 °F) in the wet season. Precipitation varies from just a trace in the dry season to over 250 cm (10 inches) in October. Economy The Cambodian economy is small, but growing quickly. In the 21st century, the annual growth rate has been between 5 and 9%. The GDP in 2007 was $8.3 billion US or $571 per capita. 35% of Cambodians live below the poverty line. The Cambodian economy is based primarily on agriculture and tourism- 75% of the workforce are farmers. Other industries include textiles manufacturing, and extraction of natural resources (timber, rubber, manganese, phosphate, and gems). Both the Cambodian rial and the US dollar are used in Cambodia, with the rial mostly given as change. The exchange rate is $1 4,128 KHR (October 2008 rate). History of Cambodia Human settlement in Cambodia dates back at least 7,000 years, and probably much farther. Early Kingdoms Chinese sources from the first century A.D. describe a powerful kingdom called Funan in Cambodia, which was strongly influenced by India. Funan went into decline in the 6th century A.D., and was supplanted by a group of ethnically-Khmer kingdoms that the Chinese refer to as Chenla. The Khmer Empire In 790, Prince Jayavarman II founded a new empire, the first to unite Cambodia as a political entity. This was the Khmer Empire, which lasted until 1431. The crown jewel of the Khmer Empire was the city of Angkor, centered around the temple of Angkor Wat. Construction began in the 890s, and Angkor served as the seat of power for more than 500 years. At its height, Angkor covered more area than modern-day New York City. Fall of the Khmer Empire After 1220, the Khmer Empire began to decline. It was attacked repeatedly by the neighboring Tai (Thai) people, and the beautiful city of Angkor was abandoned by the end of the 16th century. Thai and Vietnamese Rule After the fall of the Khmer Empire, Cambodia came under the control of the neighboring Tai and Vietnamese kingdoms. These two powers competed for influence until 1863, when France took control of Cambodia. French Rule The French ruled Cambodia for a century but viewed it as a subsidiary of the more important colony of Vietnam. During World War II, the Japanese occupied Cambodia but left the Vichy French in charge. The Japanese promoted Khmer nationalism and pan-Asian ideas. After Japans defeat, the Free French sought renewed control over Indochina. The rise of nationalism during the war, however, forced France to offer increasing self-rule to the Cambodians until independence in 1953. Independent Cambodia Prince Sihanouk ruled newly-free Cambodia until 1970 when he was deposed during the Cambodian Civil War (1967-1975). This war pitted communist forces, called the Khmer Rouge, against the US-backed Cambodian government. In 1975 the Khmer Rouge won the civil war, and under Pol Pot set to work creating an agrarian communist utopia by exterminating political opponents, monks and priests, and educated people in general. Just four years of Khmer Rouge rule left 1 to 2 million Cambodians dead- about 1/5 of the population. Vietnam attacked Cambodia and captured Phnom Penh in 1979, withdrawing only in 1989. The Khmer Rouge fought on as guerrillas until 1999. Today, though, Cambodia is a peaceful and democratic nation.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

The Food Sector of Saudi Arabia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5500 words

The Food Sector of Saudi Arabia - Research Paper Example There is also scope for seeing a wider and diverse range of products apart from the available food products. With average annual sales of 3.5 billion dollars, this sector offers a lot of insights as well as opportunities for strategic marketing. The growth of the food industry in Arab can be seen from the fact that more and more international food organizations are launching their products and services in Saudi Arabia. This can be attributed to the changing food habits of the overall population, increasing demand for diversity in food, etc. The island of oil has seen a gradual shift in the food habits of Arab populations. With the rise in economy and increasing percentage of younger populations, the overall choice and taste for food has changed. More and more population is now opting for outside food outlets, such as restaurants and hotels. As women entrepreneurs and workers are increasing in numbers, home cooked food is being replaced by ordered food. The overall preference of Arab population is shifting towards eating out. This can be seen from the increasing marketing strategies adopted by Arab restaurants. The overall food and drinks purchased by restaurants in Saudi Arabia have seen a 12 percent year on year increase. As more and more people are opting out, the restaurants are also increasing their overall range of food products. Restaurants and hotels in Saudi Arabia have also categorized their food and beverages department according to the target population. Different menus and cuisines are prepared and served for locals as well as tourists in the restaurants. Thus, it can be said that food industry has become a burgeoning sector in Saudi Arabia, provided it is supported by proper marketing and branding activities. However, it is also important to highlight the negative effects of such a change in food preferences. Though outside food is becoming popular as a result of factor such as time saved, convenience, variety etc, it is also true that the overall quality of food is getting compromised. As a result, health concerns among general population are on the rise. Recent government reports have suggested that there has been a rise in obesity and diabetes, basically arising from irregular and unhealthy eating habits. Researchers have also shown that average percentage of obese children have increased in the past five years. Now all of the above facts pose a serious threat on the general health of the Arab population. Thus, it has been important for the government as well as the organizations to educate society in terms of healthy food and healthy lifestyle. Like other organizations in the food sector in Arab, Arzaq also faces few challenges and concerns in terms of marketing its food products. It can be seen that Saudi Arabia has become a hub for international food. Thus, in order to expand its customer base and gain market share as well as brand recognition, Arzaq will have to opt for strategic marketing activities.  Ã‚