Friday, May 22, 2020
A. Title of the Book: Ã¢â¬Å" The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬ B. Author: Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 -1894) * As a novelist, he is often noted for the powers of invention and depth of psychological insights found in his work; a skill defined by G. K. Chesterton as being able Ã¢â¬Ëto pick up the right word up on the point of his penÃ¢â¬â¢. * Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer. * A literary celebrity during his lifetime, Stevenson now ranks among the 26 most translated authors in the world. * Stevenson was born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson at 8 Howard Place, Edinburgh, Scotland, on 13 November 1850 to Margaret Isabella Balfour andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦* On 3 December 1894, Stevenson was talking to his wife and straining to open a bottle of wine when he suddenly exclaimed, Whats that! asking his wife Does my face look strange? and collapsed. * Stevenson was a celebrity in his own t ime, but with the rise of modern literature after World War I, he was seen for much of the 20th century as a writer of the second class, relegated to childrens literature and horror genres. * Half of Stevensons original manuscripts are lost, including those of Ã¢â¬Å"Treasure IslandÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"The Black ArrowÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Master of Ballantrae.Ã¢â¬ Stevensons heirs sold Stevensons papers during World War I; many Stevenson documents were auctioned off in 1918. C. Type of Literature * Ã¢â¬Å"The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬ belongs to the allegoric type of literature. Insightful, well-written, and extremely enjoyable, it is a story that chimes so with our collective consciousness that it has entered into a legend. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just give one phase of what you read but it also another phase where in you can reflect and interfere with another idea. Usually in allegory, the events depicted symbolize an underlying moral or spiritual quality or represent a hidden meaning beneath the literal one expressed. Likewise, in the story,Show MoreRelatedBook Report - Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde4772 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesA. Title of the Book: Ã¢â¬Å" The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬ B. Author: Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 -1894) * As a novelist, he is often noted for the powers of invention and depth of psychological insights found in his work; a skill defined by G. K. Chesterton as being able Ã¢â¬Ëto pick up the right word up on the point of his penÃ¢â¬â¢. * Robert Louis Balfour StevensonÃ was a ScottishÃ novelist, poet, essayist, andÃ travel writer. * A literary celebrity duringRead MoreThe Literature of the Victorian Period1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Dr. Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬ by Stevenson Book Analysis Ã¢â¬Å"North and SouthÃ¢â¬ by Gaskell Book Report Example of Literature Review essay, Sample Paper Introduction The literature of the Victorian period is the synonymy of oppositions. Some of the oppositions introduced by this period are to be considered Ã¢â¬Å"vitalÃ¢â¬ as they deal with the major human values. The list of the works known to be the best representations of the Victorian world outlook is very long; nevertheless some works are to be highlightedRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s legendary novella, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, is relatively well known. A scientist, Dr. Henry Jekyll, tries to separate his inner good from evil and ends up with an alter ego, Edward Hyde. While Hyde, he commits numerous atrocities, including trampling a child and beating Sir Danvers Carew to death with a walking stick. The story is mostly written from the point of view of Mr. Gabriel Utterson, a lawyer who is friends with Jekyll and eventually pieces together the mystery ofRead MoreThere Has Always Been A Fascination Wit h The Self, Often1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere has always been a fascination with the self, often expressed in literature; Both Robert Louis StevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) and Daniel KeyesÃ¢â¬â¢ Flowers for Algernon (1966) published nearly one-hundred years later, explore the theme of the importance of self-knowledge. Both The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Flowers for Algernon explore cases of self-alienation catalyzed by a quest for self-knowledge. The main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s self-alienation stems fromRead MoreFrankenstien vs Dr.Jekly and Mr. Hyde1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBoth Robert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein tell cautionary tales of scientists abusing their creative powers to exist in another sphere where they cannot be directly blamed for their actions. Though Frankensteins creation is a Creature distinct from his creator while Dr. Jekyll metamorphoses into Mr. Hyde, the double of each protagonist progressively grows more violent throughout his story. By doing so he symbolizes his creators repressed desires inRead More Robert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRobert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Both Robert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein tell cautionary tales of scientists abusing their creative powers to exist in another sphere where they cannot be directly blamed for their actions. Though Frankensteins creation is a Creature distinct from his creator while Dr. Jekyll metamorphoses into Mr. Hyde, the double of each protagonist progressively grows more violent throughoutRead MoreDr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde2521 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesUncovering Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was published in 1886 by Robert Louis Stevenson. The story is based on a London lawyer named Gabriel John Utterson, who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr. Henry Jekyll, and the evil Edward Hyde. This novel was composed as a shilling shocker. A shilling shocker is a short, graphic book. This whole novel is based in Victorian England. Noting the servants, differences between the rich and poorRead MoreStevensons Use of Literary Techniques to Portray Evil in Jekyll and Hyde3969 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesThis essay will focus on how Robert Louis Stevenson presents the nature of evil through his novel Ã¢â¬ËThe Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr HydeÃ¢â¬â¢. Using ideas such as duality, the technique used to highlight the two different sides of a character or scene, allegories, an extended metaphor which has an underlying moral significance, and hypocrisy; in this book the Victorians being against all things evil but regula rly taking part in frown able deeds that would not be approved of in a Ã¢â¬ËrespectableÃ¢â¬â¢ societyRead MoreMovie Review : Jekyll Hyde The Musical 1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFort Worth Academy of Fine Arts Summer 2014 High School Reading Drama Report Form: Alexandra Brinkley 12th Grade AP Literature Maddoux Play Title: Jekyll Hyde The Musical Author: The whole show is based on Ã¢â¬Å"Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬ by Robert Louis Stevenson. The musical lyrics were written by Frank Wildhorn, Leslie Bricusse, and Steven Cuden. The musical book was written by Leslie Bricusse. Category/Genre: Drama/Horror Where did you watch this play? I watched this show at CasaRead MoreDissociative Identity Disorder ( Multiple Personality )1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto test the reliability and validity of this scale. The scale is referred to as The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and was developed to help measure dissociation in individuals. The Dissociative Experiences Scale is a twenty-eight item self-report questionnaire. How this scale works is that the individual is asked to mark on a line to indicate where they fall on the continuum for each specific question. After the experiment, the scale was able to show high rates in both reliability and validity
Friday, May 8, 2020
Climate change impacts are not new issues nowadays. Many scholars had identified some phenomena that show the occurrence climate change. For instance the increases of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature, the significant records of sea level rise, which threaten mostly on Small Island developing states, extreme weather that cause the shifting season, and drought events. Basically, impacts of climate change cannot be avoided. However as intellectual creatures, humans are expected to be able to take actions in minimizing its impacts. In addition, people need to understand the context of climate change impacts on certain locations over time, and how the local systems work before implementing the climate change adaptation and mitigation actions because these actions could not be generalized to be applied on all conditions. Due to these actions depends on the local context, therefore, I belief that it is necessary to understand about the concept of climate change comprehensively as well as its adap tation and mitigation actions in order to enhance our capacity to deal with the climate changeÃ¢â¬â¢s consequences. Climate change issues in Indonesia Reflects to Indonesia context, as located on the pacific ring of fire, it causes Indonesia facing the high risk of natural hazards. Also, the climate change impacts threat Indonesia as an archipelago nation. Human activities, however, exacerbate its impacts through urbanization, deforestation, and land clearance for example. Frequently flood and drought eventsShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment Essay1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOCEAN ACIDIFICATION Smog, contaminated water, melting of snow packs. These are some of impacts that Climate Change has had on the Earth over the past years. All of these are product of the increase in carbon dioxide emissions by humans and their polluting activities. Since the Industrial Revolution, these events have escalated and, they have been becoming more noticeable and prolonged across the globe. Some of these events are more palpable and pronounced in certain parts of the hemisphere. For exampleRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment1445 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescooler climates all are impacts of increasing temperatures that are happening right now. Within the next century, sea levels will rise 7 - 23 inches, Storms will become much stronger, floods/droughts will become more common, and many, many other negative environmental changes (Cook). These changes in the environment have been the topic of debate for decades, but has become more and more common over the past few years. On one side of the debate, there are the people who believe climate changeRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe amount of damage that has been done to the environment is due to this current generation and the problem I will be focusing on is climate change. Climate change is an issue that has been present for many years, but we are just now deciding to stand up and try to fix things. The problem at hand is whether or not itÃ¢â¬â¢s too late to undo the destruction thatÃ¢â¬â¢s already been done. Is this damage too critical that it cannot be corrected? Climate change is an environmental issue that is reversible, theRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrisks of climate change, but many others are unaware of the problem, unsure of the facts or what to do, do not trust experts or believe their conclusions, think the problem is elsewhere, are fixed in their ways, believe that others should act, or believe that their actions will make no difference or are unimportant compared to those of others. II. Ã¢â¬ ¢ An individual level of analysis is relevant for understanding the impacts of climate change and the ways individuals adapt to climate change becauseRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesClimate change has become a major issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Coming from the rise of Greenhouse Gas emissions and changing temperature caused human developments, world leaders and organisations are working on ways to combat the problem. This includes taking steps towards renewable energy and a cleaner future. Although, human activity is not the sole cause to the rising earthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperatures. Besides are use of greenhouse gases and fossil fuels, natural Influences including the current El NiÃ ±o periodRead MoreClimate Change And Its Effect On The Environment Essay1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Tying this back to climate change, it the levels of these salt marshes are affected by the rise in seawater. However, if the cordgrass and marsh hay experience more or less stress from higher or lower tides than they are used to, the soils within each area will be disturbed. The higher the sea level rises, the more tides increase in number as well as speed. If the tides speed up and become more frequent, it is possible that this could dislodge newly planted seeds and disturb the populations increasingRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment906 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesClimate is consistent behavior of temperature, precipitation, humidity, atmospheric pressure and other related environmental factors. Around the globe, temperature a re climbing, sea levels are rising, and season are changing, which means that climate change is transforming our Earth. Climate change indicates negative consequences on the impact to humanity and on the factors of the climate system. By climate change the most endangered is atmosphere, because it changes the composition of uncontrolledRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Enviro nment1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDue to recent climate change the environment has been impacted in many ways. Climate Change is a change in global or regional climate patterns attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels (Oxford Dictionary). Scientists have studied the impacts it s having on the environment such as temperature rising, sea level rising, and increase in natural disasters. Climate change has only affected us in the 20 years due to the increase in factoriesRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment Essay954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat the reason for the heat range change is man made pollution. The alleged cause of this climatic change is the development of carbon dioxide, which blocks solar heat and keeps it from radiating out of the weather. Carbon footprint is a way to evaluate the effect that human actions have on the surroundings through the exhaust of green house gas, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbon are associated with environment changes and have an effect on the entire atmosphere. SpecificallyRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Environment Essay1916 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBarack Obama and other World Leaders secured a global agreement to fight against climate change. President Obama strives to lessen global emissions by the end of the century and to alleviate the amount of fossil fuels that are being burned in our atmosphere. Society has been affecting our environment by burning fossil fuels and decreasing the amount of greenhouse gases. The changing climate has affected the environment in many ways. The EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s water systems have been thrown off balance, there are
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Monday, April 27, 2020
Peter Brook Paper How do you think that Peter Brook has employed the ideas/techniques of the practitioners detailed in Mitters study? Please refer to Brooks own writings, particularly The Shifting Point, in answering this question. Peter Brook is one of the worlds most famous directors and has much in-depth knowledge and experience of the theatre. Brook is a key figure in modern theatre, building on the innovations of earlier practitioners and continuing that uniquely twentieth century institution, the directors theatre. (Halfyard, 2000:http://www.maxopus. com/essays/8songs_m. htm) Brook is known as the leading director of his generation (Peter Hall) and he claims he can take any empty space and call it a bare stage, but where did he get his inspiration? Who are his influences? In this essay, I am going to try and find any similarities between Brooks theatre techniques and those of Konstantin Stanislavsky, Bertolt Brecht and Jerzy Grotowski. I am looking for if he has more preference towards one of these directors or uses a combination of each of their rehearsal methods with his actors. Shomit Mitters study, Systems of Rehearsal, looks at the process of rehearsal according to Brook, associating his rehearsal techniques with those created by Stanislavsky, Grotowski and Brecht. In Mitters introduction at first, I felt a sense of criticism towards Brook; Brook seemed to me more a mimic than an inventor (Mitter, 1992:30) and he mentions the extent of Brooks debt to each of the above directors. Although in the latter part of Mitters introduction, he goes on to say that it is extraordinary how Brook showed such a likeness with such completely different directors: We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I began to feel that his ability to absorb the influence of vastly dissimilar theatres could only be seen as an achievement. (Mitter, 1992:4) In Brooks study The Shifting Point, looking back on his career in theatre, he speaks about a misunderstanding that exists in theatre which is the assumption that theatrical process falls into two stages; the first: making, and the second: selling. Brook then shows disagreement with Stanislavsky: Even in the title of Stanislavskys great work Building a Character, this misunderstanding persists, implying that a character can be built up like a wall, until one day the last brick is laid and the character is complete. To my mind, it is just the opposite. I would say that the process consists not of two stages but of two phases. First: preparation. Second: birth. This is very different. (Brook, 1987:7) In one of the very few references to Stanislavsky in Brooks book The Empty Space, Brook describes this same subject very briefly, explaining that a character isnt a static thing and it cant be built like a wall. (Brook, 1968:114) This emphasis on how he wants to shape his actors, prove that he wants his actors to be constantly learning, encountering new approaches to acting and experiencing different practical exercises within the rehearsal process. Brook does not refer to Stanislavsky as often as I expected in both The Shifting Point and The Empty Space, whereas Mitters first chapter in his book shows immense comparison between Stanislavsky and Brook. Like Stanislavsky, Brook believes that the entire corpus of objectively available material on the character is insufficient. The actors need a far more detailed picture of the world in which their characters live. (Mitter, 1992:28) This method Stanislavsky employed consisted of questioning each actor and asking each one about their characters lives; the information that was not written in the text. The actors, for example, were asked to answer questions about their individual characters family members, the characters profession and where they lived. The questions were created to give a personal view into the character, thinking how they thought and recognising the depth of the character. In order to be, the actor must feel, and in order to feel, the actor must move from the self to the play via the mind. (Mitter,1992:11) Stanislavsky had accepted how set-design could play in creating emotion. Brook also uses the set to help create emotion; Instead of standing their ground four-square they will now run up and down ladders The life of these exchanges is, at the last, not to come from the actors words but from their actions. Rhythm and impulse, unfound in the lines, will be found in the ladders. (Mitter,1992:38, from The Making of A Midsummer Nights Dream) This meant that whilst the actors were physically climbing up and down the ladders, it was affecting the pace and the impact of the lines spoken; resulting in what Brook required from the start. He had found a way, physiologically rather than psychologically, to generate what he required from the actors. One would note Brooks repeated insistence that he doesnt want things acted. Echoing precisely Grotowskis claim that acting is abandoned in his theatre. (Mitter, 1992:108) Here, Mitter is describing a similarity Brook has to Jerzy Grotowski; how both their ideal theatre performances are true to life. Brook asked his actors not to perform, not to characterise and do a movement as an everyday person would without exaggerating. The actors arent acting, they are being. (Mitter,1992:109, from Peter Brook: A Theatrical Casebook, 1988) Brooks association with these ideas returns in The Shifting Point: A real person is someone who is open in all parts of himself, a person who has developed himself to the point where he can open himself completely- with his body, with his intelligence, with his feelings, so that none of these channels are blocked.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Biography of Mahmud of Ghazni, First Sultan in History Mahmud of Ghazni (Nov. 2, 971Ã¢â¬âApril 30, 1030), the first ruler in history to assume the title of sultan, founded the Ghaznavid Empire. His title signified that the Muslim Caliph remained the religious leader of the empire despite being the political leader of a vast swath of land, encompassing much of what is now Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India. Fast Facts: Mahmud of Ghazni Known For: First sultan in historyAlso Known As: Yamin ad-Dawlah Abdul-Qasim Mahmud ibn SabukteginBorn: Nov. 2, 971 in Ghazna,Ã Zabulistan,Ã Samanid EmpireParents: Abu Mansur Sabuktigin, Mahmud-i ZavuliÃ Died: April 30, 1030 in GhaznaHonor: Pakistan named itsÃ short-range ballistic missileÃ theÃ Ghaznavi MissileÃ in his honor.Spouse: Kausari JahanChildren: MohammadÃ andÃ Masud (twins) Early Life On Nov. 2, 971, Yamin ad-Dawlah Abdul-Qasim Mahmud ibn Sabuktegin, better known as Mahmud of Ghazni, was born in the town of Ghazna (now known as Ghazni), in southeast Afghanistan. His father Abu Mansur Sabuktegin was Turkic, a former Mamluk warrior-slave from Ghazni. When the Samanid dynasty, based in Bukhara (now in Uzbekistan) began to crumble, Sabuktegin seized control of his hometown of Ghazni in 977. He then conquered other major Afghan cities, such as Kandahar. His kingdom formed the core of the Ghaznavid Empire, and he is credited with founding the dynasty. Not much is known about Mahmud of Ghaznis childhood. He had two younger brothers; the second one, Ismail, was born to Sabuktegins principal wife. The fact that she, unlike Mahmuds mother, was a free-born woman of noble blood would turn out to be key in the question of succession when Sabuktegin died during a military campaign in 997. Rise to Power On his deathbed, Sabuktegin passed over his militarily and diplomatically skilled eldest son Mahmud, 27, in favor of the second son, Ismail. It seems likely that he chose Ismail because he was not descended from slaves on both sides, unlike the elder and younger brothers. When Mahmud, who was stationed at Nishapur (now in Iran), heard of his brothers appointment to the throne, he immediately marched east to challenge Ismails right to rule. Mahmud overcame his brothers supporters in 998, seized Ghazni, took the throne for himself, and placed his younger brother under house arrest for the rest of his life. The new sultan would rule until his own death in 1030. Expanding the Empire Mahmuds early conquests expanded the Ghaznavid realm to roughly the same footprint as the ancient Kushan Empire. He employed typical Central Asian military techniques and tactics, relying primarily on a highly mobile horse-mounted cavalry, armed with compound bows. By 1001, Mahmud had turned his attention to the fertile lands of the Punjab, now in India, which lay southeast of his empire. The target region belonged to fierce but fractious Hindu Rajput kings, who refused to coordinate their defense against the Muslim threat from Afghanistan. In addition, the Rajputs used a combination of infantry and elephant-mounted cavalry, a formidable but slower-moving form of army than the Ghaznavids horse cavalry. Ruling a Huge State Over the next three decades, Mahmud of Ghazni would make more than a dozen military strikes into Hindu and Ismaili kingdoms to the south. By the time of his death, Mahmuds empire stretched to the shores of the Indian Ocean at southern Gujarat. Mahmud appointed local vassal kings to rule in his name in many of the conquered regions, easing relations with non-Muslim populations. He also welcomed Hindu and Ismaili soldiers and officers into his army. However, as the cost of constant expansion and warfare began to strain the Ghaznavid treasury in the later years of his reign, Mahmud ordered his troops to target Hindu temples and strip them of vast quantities of gold. Domestic Policies The Sultan Mahmud loved books and honored learned men. In his home base at Ghazni, he built a library to rival that of the Abbasid caliphs court in Baghdad, now in Iraq. Mahmud of Ghazni also sponsored the construction of universities, palaces, and grand mosques, making his capital city the jewel of Central Asia. Final Campaign and Death In 1026, the 55-year-old sultan set out to invade the state of Kathiawar, on Indias west (Arabian Sea) coast. His army drove as far south as Somnath, famous for its beautiful temple to the Lord Shiva. Although Mahmuds troops successfully captured Somnath, looting and destroying the temple, there was troubling news from Afghanistan. A number of other Turkic tribes had risen up to challenge Ghaznavid rule, including the Seljuk Turks, who had already captured Merv (Turkmenistan) and Nishapur (Iran). These challengers had already begun to nibble away at the edges of the Ghaznavid Empire by the time Mahmud died on April 30, 1030. The sultan was 59 years old. Legacy Mahmud of Ghazni left behind a mixed legacy. His empire would survive until 1187, although it began to crumble from west to east even before his death. In 1151, the Ghaznavid sultan Bahram Shah lost Ghazni itself, fleeing to Lahore (now in Pakistan). The Sultan Mahmud spent much of his life battling against what he called infidels- Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, and Muslim splinter-groups such as the Ismailis. In fact, the Ismailis seem to have been a particular target of his wrath, since Mahmud (and his nominal overlord, the Abbasid caliph) considered them heretics. Nonetheless, Mahmud of Ghazni seems to have tolerated non-Muslim people so long as they did not oppose him militarily. This record of relative tolerance would continue into the following Muslim empires in India: the Delhi Sultanate (1206Ã¢â¬â1526) and the Mughal Empire (1526Ã¢â¬â1857). Sources Duiker, William J. Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History, Vol. 1, Independence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2006.Mahmud Of Ghazni. Afghan Network.Nazim, Muhammad. The Life and Times of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, CUP Archive, 1931.Ramachandran, Sudha. Ã¢â¬Å"Asias Missiles Strike at the Heart.Ã¢â¬ Ã Asia Times Online., Asia Times, 3 Sept. 2005.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Facts and History About the Country of Cambodia The 20th century was disastrous for Cambodia. The country was occupied by Japan in World War II and became collateral damage in the Vietnam War, with secret bombings and cross-border incursions. In 1975, the Khmer Rouge regime seized power; they would murder approximately 1/5 of their own citizens in a mad frenzy of violence. Yet not all of Cambodian history is dark and blood-drenched. Between the 9th and 13th centuries, Cambodia was home to the Khmer Empire, which left behind incredible monuments such as Angkor Wat. Hopefully, the 21st century will be much kinder to the people of Cambodia than the last one was. Capital: Phnom Pehn, population 1,300,000 Cities: Battambang, population 1,025,000, Sihanoukville, population 235,000, Siem Reap, population 140,000, Kampong Cham, population 64,000 Cambodias Government Cambodia has a constitutional monarchy, with King Norodom Sihamoni as the current head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government.Ã The current Prime Minister of Cambodia is Hun Sen, who was elected in 1998.Ã Legislative power is shared between the executive branch and the bicameral parliament, made up of the 123-member National Assembly of Cambodia and the 58-member Senate. Cambodia has a semi-functional multi-party representative democracy. Unfortunately, corruption is rampant and the government is non-transparent. Population Cambodias population is about 15,458,000 (2014 estimate).Ã The vast majority, 90%, are ethnic Khmer. Approximately 5% are Vietnamese, 1% Chinese, and the remaining 4% includes small populations of Chams (a Malay people), Jarai, Khmer Loeu, and Europeans. Due to the massacres of the Khmer Rouge era, Cambodia has a very young population. The median age is 21.7 years, and only 3.6% of the population is over the age of 65. (In comparison, 12.6% of US citizens are over 65.) Cambodias birth rate is 3.37 per woman; the infant mortality rate is 56.6 per 1,000 live births.Ã The literacy rate is 73.6%. Languages The official language of Cambodia is Khmer, which is part of the Mon-Khmer language family. Unlike nearby languages such as Thai, Vietnamese and Lao, spoken Khmer is not tonal. Written Khmer has a unique script, called abugida. Other languages in common use in Cambodia include French, Vietnamese, and English. Religion Most Cambodians (95%) today are Theravada Buddhists. This austere version of Buddhism became prevalent in Cambodia in the thirteenth century, displacing the combination of Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism that was practiced previously. Modern Cambodia also has Muslim citizens (3%) and Christians (2%). Some people practice traditions derived from animism as well, alongside their primary faith. Geography Cambodia has an area of 181,040 square kilometers or 69,900 square miles. It is bordered by Thailand to the west and north, Laos to the north, and Vietnam to the east and south. Cambodia also has a 443 kilometer (275 miles) coastline on the Gulf of Thailand. The highest point in Cambodia is Phnum Aoral, at 1,810 meters (5,938 feet). The lowest point is the Gulf of Thailand coast, at sea level. West-central Cambodia is dominated by Tonle Sap, a large lake. During the dry season, its area is about 2,700 square kilometers (1,042 square miles), but during the monsoon season, it swells to 16,000 sq. km (6,177 sq. miles). Climate Cambodia has a tropical climate, with a rainy monsoon season from May to November, and a dry season from December to April. Temperatures dont vary much from season to season; the range is 21-31Ã °C (70-88Ã °F) in the dry season, and 24-35Ã °C (75-95Ã °F) in the wet season. Precipitation varies from just a trace in the dry season to over 250 cm (10 inches) in October. Economy The Cambodian economy is small, but growing quickly. In the 21st century, the annual growth rate has been between 5 and 9%. The GDP in 2007 was $8.3 billion US or $571 per capita. 35% of Cambodians live below the poverty line. The Cambodian economy is based primarily on agriculture and tourism- 75% of the workforce are farmers. Other industries include textiles manufacturing, and extraction of natural resources (timber, rubber, manganese, phosphate, and gems). Both the Cambodian rial and the US dollar are used in Cambodia, with the rial mostly given as change. The exchange rate is $1 4,128 KHR (October 2008 rate). History of Cambodia Human settlement in Cambodia dates back at least 7,000 years, and probably much farther. Early Kingdoms Chinese sources from the first century A.D. describe a powerful kingdom called Funan in Cambodia, which was strongly influenced by India. Funan went into decline in the 6th century A.D., and was supplanted by a group of ethnically-Khmer kingdoms that the Chinese refer to as Chenla. The Khmer Empire In 790, Prince Jayavarman II founded a new empire, the first to unite Cambodia as a political entity. This was the Khmer Empire, which lasted until 1431. The crown jewel of the Khmer Empire was the city of Angkor, centered around the temple of Angkor Wat. Construction began in the 890s, and Angkor served as the seat of power for more than 500 years. At its height, Angkor covered more area than modern-day New York City. Fall of the Khmer Empire After 1220, the Khmer Empire began to decline. It was attacked repeatedly by the neighboring Tai (Thai) people, and the beautiful city of Angkor was abandoned by the end of the 16th century. Thai and Vietnamese Rule After the fall of the Khmer Empire, Cambodia came under the control of the neighboring Tai and Vietnamese kingdoms. These two powers competed for influence until 1863, when France took control of Cambodia. French Rule The French ruled Cambodia for a century but viewed it as a subsidiary of the more important colony of Vietnam. During World War II, the Japanese occupied Cambodia but left the Vichy French in charge. The Japanese promoted Khmer nationalism and pan-Asian ideas. After Japans defeat, the Free French sought renewed control over Indochina. The rise of nationalism during the war, however, forced France to offer increasing self-rule to the Cambodians until independence in 1953. Independent Cambodia Prince Sihanouk ruled newly-free Cambodia until 1970 when he was deposed during the Cambodian Civil War (1967-1975). This war pitted communist forces, called the Khmer Rouge, against the US-backed Cambodian government. In 1975 the Khmer Rouge won the civil war, and under Pol Pot set to work creating an agrarian communist utopia by exterminating political opponents, monks and priests, and educated people in general. Just four years of Khmer Rouge rule left 1 to 2 million Cambodians dead- about 1/5 of the population. Vietnam attacked Cambodia and captured Phnom Penh in 1979, withdrawing only in 1989. The Khmer Rouge fought on as guerrillas until 1999. Today, though, Cambodia is a peaceful and democratic nation.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
The Food Sector of Saudi Arabia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5500 words
The Food Sector of Saudi Arabia - Research Paper Example There is also scope for seeing a wider and diverse range of products apart from the available food products. With average annual sales of 3.5 billion dollars, this sector offers a lot of insights as well as opportunities for strategic marketing. The growth of the food industry in Arab can be seen from the fact that more and more international food organizations are launching their products and services in Saudi Arabia. This can be attributed to the changing food habits of the overall population, increasing demand for diversity in food, etc. The island of oil has seen a gradual shift in the food habits of Arab populations. With the rise in economy and increasing percentage of younger populations, the overall choice and taste for food has changed. More and more population is now opting for outside food outlets, such as restaurants and hotels. As women entrepreneurs and workers are increasing in numbers, home cooked food is being replaced by ordered food. The overall preference of Arab population is shifting towards eating out. This can be seen from the increasing marketing strategies adopted by Arab restaurants. The overall food and drinks purchased by restaurants in Saudi Arabia have seen a 12 percent year on year increase. As more and more people are opting out, the restaurants are also increasing their overall range of food products. Restaurants and hotels in Saudi Arabia have also categorized their food and beverages department according to the target population. Different menus and cuisines are prepared and served for locals as well as tourists in the restaurants. Thus, it can be said that food industry has become a burgeoning sector in Saudi Arabia, provided it is supported by proper marketing and branding activities. However, it is also important to highlight the negative effects of such a change in food preferences. Though outside food is becoming popular as a result of factor such as time saved, convenience, variety etc, it is also true that the overall quality of food is getting compromised. As a result, health concerns among general population are on the rise. Recent government reports have suggested that there has been a rise in obesity and diabetes, basically arising from irregular and unhealthy eating habits. Researchers have also shown that average percentage of obese children have increased in the past five years. Now all of the above facts pose a serious threat on the general health of the Arab population. Thus, it has been important for the government as well as the organizations to educate society in terms of healthy food and healthy lifestyle. Like other organizations in the food sector in Arab, Arzaq also faces few challenges and concerns in terms of marketing its food products. It can be seen that Saudi Arabia has become a hub for international food. Thus, in order to expand its customer base and gain market share as well as brand recognition, Arzaq will have to opt for strategic marketing activities.Ã Ã